Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Africa, 2005

 

Sudan

Exchange rate: US$1.00 equals 255.29 dinars.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1974.

Current law: 1990 (social insurance), with 2004 amendment.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Employed persons and the self-employed.

Exclusions: Domestic servants, home workers, family labor, farmers and foresters, and unpaid apprentices.

Special systems for civil servants, the police force, and armed forces personnel.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 8% of gross monthly earnings. (Contributions for work periods in uncovered employment may be paid retroactively by the insured person.)

Self-employed person: 25% of monthly income. (The declared monthly income for contribution purposes is chosen by the self-employed person from earnings classes ranging from 15,000 pounds to 200,000 pounds.)

Employer: 15% of gross monthly payroll.

Government: None.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 60 with 20 years of contributions. The normal retirement age is reduced for those in arduous work. Retirement from work is necessary.

Early pension: Payable from age 50 with at least 20 years of contributions.

Old-age settlement: Paid at the normal retirement age to an insured person who is ineligible for the old-age pension; at any age to an insured person resigning from work or laid off.

Disability pension: Payable for a permanent total incapacity. There is no minimum qualifying period. The onset of disability occurred while in insured employment or within 1 year of insured employment ceasing and before reaching the normal retirement age.

Survivor pension: Payable for the death of the insured or a pensioner. There is no minimum qualifying period.

Eligible survivors are a widow or a dependent widower and children younger than age 18 (age 26 if a student, no limit for an unmarried daughter or if disabled). In the absence of a surviving widow and children, the pension is paid to dependent brothers, sisters, and parents.

Death grant: Paid for the death of the insured or a pensioner. In the absence of a surviving widow(er), children, or parents, the benefit is paid to dependent brothers and sisters.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The pension is equal to 1/50 of the insured's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before retirement for each 12-month period of contributions.

The minimum pension is equal to 40% of the insured's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before retirement.

The maximum pension is equal to 80% of the insured's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before retirement.

The pension may be partially paid as a lump sum, without interest.

Early pension: The pension is reduced by 15% if the insured is aged 50 to 54 or by 10% if aged 55 to 59.

Old-age settlement: A refund of 100% of employer and employee contributions; the adjusted value of contributions for insured persons resigning from work or laid off.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: The pension is equal to 50% of the insured's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before the onset of disability or 1/50 of the same earnings for each 12-month period of contributions, whichever is higher.

The minimum pension is equal to 40% of the insured's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before retirement.

The maximum pension is equal to 80% of the insured's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before the onset of disability.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The maximum pension is equal to 50% of the deceased's average monthly earnings in the 3 years before death or 1/50 of the same earnings for each 12-month period of contributions, whichever is higher. If there is more than one widow, the pension is split equally among them.

The eligible widow(er) receives 90% of the pension if there are no other eligible survivors (50% if there are either eligible parents or children; 30% if there are eligible children and parents). Full orphans receive 100% of the pension.

Surviving parents receive 90% of the pension if there are no other eligible survivors; 75% if there are surviving brothers and sisters.

Death grant: A lump sum equal to 42 months' earnings is paid to eligible survivors for the death of an insured person; 42 months' pension if the deceased was a pensioner.

Administrative Organization

Minister of Manpower provides general supervision.

National Social Insurance Fund administers the program.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

No statutory cash benefits are provided.

Under the 2004 Health Insurance Act, the Health Insurance Fund manages a special health insurance system for public-sector employees and insured pensioners.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1947.

Current law: 1990 (social insurance), with 2004 amendment.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Employed persons and the self-employed.

Exclusions: Domestic servants, home workers, family labor, farmers and foresters, unpaid apprentices, and convicted persons working in prison workshops.

Special systems for civil servants, the police force, and armed forces personnel.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Self-employed person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer: 2% of gross monthly payroll.

Government: None.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period. Accidents that occur while commuting to and from work are covered.

Temporary Disability Benefits

The benefit is equal to 80% of the insured's monthly average earnings in the 3 years before the onset of disability multiplied by the assessed degree of disability.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: For a total disability, 80% of the insured's monthly average earnings in the last 3 years before the onset of disability.

Constant-attendance supplement: Equal to 50% of the pension.

Partial disability: With an assessed degree of disability of at least 15%, a percentage of the full benefit according to the assessed degree of disability.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical treatment is provided by public health services. Transportation is provided by the employer.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The maximum pension is equal to 80% of the deceased's average monthly earnings in the last 3 years before death.

The eligible widow(er) receives 90% of the pension if there are no other eligible survivors (50% if there are either eligible parents or children; 30% if there are eligible children and parents). Full orphans receive 100% of the pension.

Surviving parents receive 90% of the pension if there are no other eligible survivors; 75% if there are surviving brothers and sisters.

Eligible survivors are the widow or dependent widower; children younger than age 18 or disabled; unmarried daughters; and dependent brothers, sisters, and parents.

Death grant: A lump sum equal to 42 months' earnings is paid to eligible survivors for the death of an insured person; 42 months' pension if the deceased was a pensioner.

Administrative Organization

Minister of Labor and Administrative Reform provides general supervision.

National Social Insurance Fund administers the program.

Medical care is provided by public health services.

Employers must insure against liability with private insurance companies.