Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2004

 

Uzbekistan

Exchange rate: US$1.00 equals 1,012 soms.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1956.

Current law: 1993 (state pension), implemented in 1994.

Type of program: Social insurance and social assistance system.

Local authorities and employers may provide supplementary benefits out of their own budgets.

Coverage

Social insurance: All employed persons residing in Uzbekistan.

Social pension: Needy elderly and disabled pensioners and certain other categories of resident, including victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 2.5% of wages.

Self-employed person: A contribution at least equal to the value of the national minimum monthly salary; self-employed persons who reach the retirement age and disabled self-employed persons contribute at least 50% of this amount.

Employer: 33% of total payroll; plus 0.5% of the value of gross sales (goods and services) or gross revenue.

Government: Subsidies as needed and the total cost of social pensions.

All of the above contributions also finance cash sickness and maternity benefits, work injury benefits, and family allowances.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 60 with 25 years of covered employment (men) or age 55 with 20 years of work (women). Retirement from employment is necessary.

The qualifying conditions are reduced for those working in hazardous or arduous employment or in ecologically damaged areas, for unemployed older workers, for teachers with at least 25 years of service, and for other categories of worker.

Pensions are not payable abroad; a lump sum equal to 6 months of benefits is paid to pensioners before they leave the country permanently.

Disability pension: Payable according to three categories of disability: totally disabled, incapable of any work, and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled, incapable of any work, and not requiring constant attendance (Group II); and partially disabled and incapable of usual work (Group III).

The insured must have a minimum of between 1 and 15 years of covered employment, depending on age at the onset of disability.

An expert medical commission assesses the degree of disability.

Pensions are not payable abroad; a lump sum equal to 6 months of benefits is paid to pensioners before they leave the country permanently.

Survivor pension: The deceased must have had between 1 and 15 years of covered employment, depending on age at the time of death. The pension is payable to surviving children whether or not they were dependent on the deceased and to nonworking dependents (including the spouse; either parent, if disabled and not of pensionable age; and grandparents, if no other support is available).

Pensions are not payable abroad; a lump sum equal to 6 months of benefits is paid to pensioners before they leave the country permanently.

Social pension: Needy elderly and disabled pensioners and orphans.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The pension is paid according to two income categories.

First tier (high-waged): Insured persons receive 55% of average earnings.

Average earnings are based on the average wage over any consecutive 5-year period.

The minimum pension for high-waged insured persons varies between 50% of the minimum wage (for incomplete service) and 100% of the minimum wage (for full service).

The maximum pension for high-waged insured persons with full service is 5.25 times the minimum wage.

The minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Second tier: Insured persons receive 1% of average earnings a month for every year of service.

Social pension: Special pensions are awarded to certain categories of elderly beneficiary, including war veterans.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to changes in the cost of living.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: For a Group I disability, 55% of average earnings over any consecutive 5-year period; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women), plus a constant-attendance supplement.

For a Group II disability, 55% of average earnings; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women).

For a Group III disability, 30% of earnings.

The minimum pension for a Group I or II disability is 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension; for a Group III disability, 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension.

Partial pension: If the insured has insufficient years of covered employment, the monthly benefit is reduced in proportion to the number of years below the required years of coverage.

Social pension: A social pension is awarded for a Group I disability if the disability began in childhood and for disabled children younger than age 16. The monthly pension equals 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension. The social pension for a Group II disability for adults is 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension a month; for a Group III disability, 30% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension a month.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to changes in the cost of living.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The monthly pension is 30% of earnings over any consecutive 5-year period for each dependent survivor.

The minimum pension is 100% of the minimum wage; 200% for the death of both parents or for the death of a single mother.

Social pension: A social pension is paid to each orphan younger than age 16 (no limit if disabled since childhood). The monthly pension is 50% of the minimum pension.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to changes to the cost of living.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination.

Regional departments of social protection administer the program.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First and current laws: 1955 (temporary disability), with 1984, 1990, and 1992 amendments; and 1996 (universal medical benefits).

Type of program: Social insurance (sickness and maternity benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Persons in covered employment; persons on leave from employment while pursuing secondary, technical, or advanced education; and registered unemployed persons.

Medical benefits: All residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: Total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash sickness benefits: Sickness benefits are paid according to the length of the coverage period.

Cash maternity benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Medical benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: With less than 5 years of uninterrupted employment, 60% of the last month's wage; 80% with between 5 and 8 years; 100% with over 8 years (or if the insured has three or more children).

Maternity benefit: 100% of wages. The benefit is paid monthly for 70 days before and 56 days after childbirth (may be extended to 70 days after childbirth in case of complications or multiple births). Mothers caring for children younger than age 2 are entitled to paid leave equal to 20% of the minimum wage a month. Working mothers are entitled to 3 years of unpaid leave.

The minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly by government health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, prostheses, medication, and other medical care services.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Same as for the household head.

Administrative Organization

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination. Cash benefits are provided directly by the enterprises and by local departments of social protection.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Public Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. Ministry of Public Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services through government clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First and current laws: 1955 (temporary disability) and 1993 (state pension).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Local authorities and employers can provide supplementary pension benefits out of their own budgets.

Coverage

Cash benefits: Employed persons.

Medical benefits: All residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Self-employed person: Not applicable.

Employer: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Government: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above; and the cost of medical benefits.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period. Pensions are payable abroad for a work injury or an occupational disease.

Temporary Disability Benefits

100% of earnings. Benefit is payable from the first day of incapacity until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

An expert medical commission assesses the degree of disability.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: Payable according to three categories of disability: totally disabled, incapable of any work, and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled, incapable of any work, and not requiring constant attendance (Group II); and partially disabled and incapable of usual work (Group III). For a Group I disability, 55% of average earnings over any consecutive 5-year period; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women), plus a constant-attendance supplement.

For a Group II disability, 55% of average earnings; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women).

For a Group III disability, 30% of earnings.

The minimum pension for a Group I or II disability is 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension; for a Group III disability, 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension.

An expert medical commission assesses the degree of disability.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients by governmental health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, transportation, and the full cost of appliances and medicines.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The monthly pension is 30% of the deceased's earnings over any consecutive 5-year period for each dependent survivor.

The minimum pension is 100% of the minimum wage; 200% for a full orphan or the death of a single mother.

The minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Enterprises and employers pay benefits to their own employees.

Pensions: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination. Regional departments of social protection administer the program.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Public Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. Ministry of Public Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services through clinics, hospitals, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First and current law: 1991 (employment), implemented in 1992, with 1998 amendment.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Working-age citizens.

Source of Funds

Employee: None.

Self-employed person: Not applicable.

Employer: 3% of payroll.

Government: Subsidies as needed from central and local governments.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefit: The insured must have worked for at least 12 weeks in the last 12 months.

Long-term unemployed: Reentrants to the workforce who have less than 12 weeks of employment in the last 12 months but have at least 1 year of total employment.

Registered at an employment office, able and willing to work, and receiving no income from employment. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the insured is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating the conditions for a job placement or vocational training, or filing fraudulent claims.

Unemployment Benefits

Unemployment benefit: Benefit is payable monthly at 50% of previous average earnings for 26 weeks.

The minimum benefit is 100% of the minimum wage.

The maximum benefit is based on average earnings that do not exceed the national average wage.

Long-term unemployed: Reentrants to the workforce with skills receive 100% of the minimum wage for the first 13 weeks and 75% of the minimum wage for the following 13 weeks; reentrants to the workforce without skills receive 75% of the minimum wage (50% if no dependents) for 13 weeks.

First-time job seeker: 75% of the minimum wage (50% if no dependents) for 13 weeks.

Dependent supplement: 10% of the unemployment benefit is payable monthly to each dependent younger than age 16.

The minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Early retirement pension: The old-age pension is payable to unemployed persons within 2 years of reaching pensionable age. (See old-age benefits under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.)

Administrative Organization

Employment Service and local counterparts administer the program.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1944.

Current laws: 1994 (family assistance), 1999, and 2002 (family allowances).

Type of program: Social insurance and social assistance system.

Coverage

Social insurance: Insured employed and self-employed persons.

Social assistance: Residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. For social assistance benefits, none.

Self-employed person: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. For social assistance benefits, none.

Employer: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. For social assistance benefits, none.

Government: The total cost of social assistance benefits from republic, regional, city, and district budgets as well as from various extrabudgetary sources. May provide subsidies for social insurance benefits.

Qualifying Conditions

Young child allowance (social insurance): Payable for children younger than age 2. The allowance is income-tested, except for single-parent families and families with at least one disabled child.

Family assistance (social assistance): Needy families or single persons.

Family allowance (social assistance): Children must be younger than age 16 (age 18 if a student).

Family Allowance Benefits

Young child allowance (social insurance): A fixed monthly amount equal to 200% of the national minimum wage, regardless of the number of children. The national minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Family assistance (social assistance): The monthly amount is awarded according to the number of family members and the assessed need. The allowances are normally paid monthly for a period of 3 months; may be extended in certain cases. The monthly financial assistance is between 1.5 and 3 months of the national minimum wage. The national minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Family allowance (social assistance): For families with one child, the monthly allowance is equal to 50% of the national minimum wage; for families with two children, 100%; for families with three children, 140%; for families with four or more children, 175%. Family allowances may be paid for up to 6 months; may be extended in certain cases. The national minimum wage equals 6,530 soms.

Administrative Organization

Social insurance: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination.

Social assistance: Citizens' Commissions administer the program locally, assess eligibility for entitlement, and determine the award of benefits.