Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2002

 

Syria

Exchange rate: U.S.$1.00 equals 46 pounds.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First and current laws: 1959, with 1976 amendment, and 2001.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Employees in industry and commerce and agricultural workers.

Exclusions: Domestic servants, temporary and casual employees, and those engaged in family labor.

Special system for public employees.

Voluntary coverage: Expatriate Syrian workers can opt to join the program.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 7% of earnings (plus an optional 1% of earnings for lump-sum benefits for partial and total disability or death).

Employer: 14% of payroll.

Government: None.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension

Age 60 (men) or 55 (women) with 180 months of contributions; age 55 (men) or 50 (women) with 240 months of contributions.

Maximum pension: At any age (men and women) with 360 months of contributions.

Old-age pension increment: A lump sum for covered years beyond 30 years of coverage up to a maximum of 5 years.

Earnings test: The pension is reduced by the amount by which the sum of the pension plus current earnings exceeds prior earnings or by 500 pounds per month, whichever is greater.

Payments abroad are made at the discretion of the Social Insurance Institute.

Old-age settlement: Ineligible for old-age pension.

Disability pension: Loss of at least 80% working capacity. Contributions throughout the last 12 months, or for a total of 24 months including the last 3 months.

Disability benefit: Disability exceeds 35% and voluntarily insured for this additional benefit.

Survivor pension: The deceased met the contribution conditions for the disability pension or was a pensioner at the time of death.

Death benefit: Payable to a survivor of a person voluntarily insured for this additional benefit.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: 2.22% of average earnings during the last 2 years (or 5 successive years in the last 10 years if higher) times the number of years of service.

The minimum pension is 419 pounds a month.

The maximum pension is 3,450 pounds a month, or 75% of earnings if less.

Old-age pension increment: A lump sum equal to 1 month's pension for every covered year beyond 30 years of coverage.

The maximum lump-sum increment is 5 month's pension.

Old-age settlement: 11% to 15% of total covered earnings, if ineligible for the old-age pension.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: A basis of 40% of average earnings plus 2% of average earnings for each year of covered employment.

The minimum pension is 419 pounds a month.

The maximum pension is 80% of average earnings.

Temporary disability pension: The minimum pension is 343 pounds a month, plus 25 pounds for each dependent.

Disability benefit: A lump sum equal to 50% of the insured's last year's wages. The benefit is increased by an additional 50% if the insured is totally disabled as a result of an employment accident.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The pension is equal to 37.5% of the insured's disability pension, payable to an unemployed widow at any age or a disabled widower.

Orphan's pension: The pension is equal to 25% of the insured's disability pension for the first orphan (under age 21; age 24 if disabled), or 37.5% for a full orphan; 12.5% for the second orphan.

Dependent parents: The pension is equal to 12.5% of the insured's disability pension for each parent.

The minimum survivor pension is 400 pounds a month for a widow; 96 pounds each for other survivors.

The maximum survivor pension is equal to 75% of the disability pension.

Death benefit: A lump sum equal to 100% of the insured's last year's wages is payable to a survivor. The lump sum is increased by 50% if the insured's death was caused by an employment accident.

Funeral grant: A lump sum of 1 month's earnings.

The maximum funeral grant is 100 pounds.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor provides general supervision.

Institution of Social Insurance, managed by a tripartite board of directors and a director general, administers the program through regional and district offices.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1946.

Current law: 1959, with 1976 amendment.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Employees in industry, commerce, and agriculture; municipal workers; and public employees.

Exclusion: Domestic servants.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Employer: 3% of payroll.

Government: None.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: No minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

80% of earnings during the first month; thereafter, 100% of earnings.

The minimum benefit is 2,000 pounds a month, payable from the day after the injury occurred for up to 12 months.

Work injury benefits can be combined with other pension entitlements.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: 75% of the average monthly wage in the previous year, if 80% or more disabled.

The minimum pension is 458 pounds a month.

Work injury benefits can be combined with other pension entitlements.

Partial disability: For a degree of disability of 35% to 79%, a percentage of the full pension proportionate to the degree of disability. For a degree of disability less than 35%, a lump sum of 1 year's partial pension.

Workers' Medical Benefits

General and specialist care, surgery, hospitalization, drugs, X-rays, appliances, and rehabilitation.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: 75% of the last year's wage of the deceased insured, divided among eligible survivors: 50% for the widow and 50% for orphans; if there is a dependent parent, 20% to the parent, 40% to the widow, and 40% to orphans.

The minimum pension is 400 pounds a month for a widow; 96 pounds each for other survivors.

Funeral grant: A lump sum equal to 1 month's earnings.

The minimum funeral grant is 80 pounds.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor provides general supervision.

Institution of Social Insurance administers contributions and benefits.