Committee on Economic Security (CES)

"Social Security In America"








Staff Report on Unemployment Insurance, by Dr. Bryce M. Stewart and Staff.
Unemployment Insurance Cost Estimates, by Actuarial and Statistical Staffs.
Administration of Unemployment Insurance Reserve Funds, by O. S. Powell and Alan R. Sweezy.


General Discussions

Major Issues in Unemployment Compensation, by Edwin E. Witte.
Limitations and Value of Unemployment Insurance, by Edwin E. Witte.
Some Popular Misconceptions Regarding Unemployment Insurance, by Alexander Holtzoff.
Report of the Technical Board on the Major Alternative Plans for the Administration of Unemployment Insurance, by Edwin E. Witte.

Reserve Funds

Investment of Reserve Funds, by Ralph B. Harris.
Use of Unemployment Insurance Reserves in Combating Deflation, by A. R. Sweezy.
State Constitutional Limitations Upon the Custody and Deposit of Public Funds, by George A. Shipman.
The Legal Problem of Bringing Unemployment Compensation Funds of Certain States into the Federal Treasury, by Joseph P. Harris.

Foreign Experience

Unemployment Insurance in Foreign Countries, by James Harrington Boyd.
The German Plan of Compulsory Unemployment Insurance, by James Harrington Boyd.
Unemployment Insurance in Germany, by Jeanne C. Barber.
Great Britain Unemployment Insurance Plan, by James Harrington Boyd.
Administration of Unemployment Insurance in Great Britain, by Mrs. Maud B. Patten.
Unemployment Insurance in Switzerland, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
The Canadian Unemployment and Social Insurance Act, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Recognized Unemployment Funds in Sweden, Translation of Royal Decree.

Industrial and Trade-Union Plans

The Stabilization of Employment and Unemployment Compensation, by Constance A. Kiehel.
Development, Coverage, and Costs of Voluntary Unemployment Compensation in the United States, by Constance A. Kiehel.
The Dismissal Wage, by G. Reginald Crosby.


Unemployment Benefit Plans in Operation in the United States, by James Harrington Boyd.

Discussions of Technical Details.

Suitability of Employment Involving Long Separation from Home and Heavy Traveling Expenses, by Olga S. Halsey.
Appeal Procedure in the British Act and in American Proposals, by Olga S. Halsey.
Trade-Union Rules, Alternative Provisions and "Concessions" Which May Be Used in Trading, by Olga S. Halsey.
Suggested Definition of Suitable Employment, Conditions for and Disqualifications from Benefit, by Olga S. Halsey.
Definitions of Seasonal Industries, by Olga S. Halsey.
Additional Standards Which Might be Provided in a National Act for State Unemployment Insurance, by Joseph P. Harris.

Papers Written in Support of Unemployment Compensation Plan Included in the Social Security Bill.

Brief in Defense of the Unemployment Compensation Provisions of the Social Security Bill, by Joseph P. Harris.
Postponement for a Year of the Beginning Date in Title IX, by Edwin E. Witte.



Old-Age Security Staff Report, by Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong and Staff.
Comments on the Recommendations for Old-Age Security, by Committee of Actuarial Consultants.


General Discussions.

America's Old-Age Problem, by Edwin E. Witte.
Old-Age Pensions, by Edwin E. Witte.

Foreign Systems.

British, Old-Age Pensions and Old-Age Insurance, by Olga S. Halsey.
Financial History of the Workers' Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivors' Insurance of Germany, by Marianne Sakmann.
The Functioning of the Government Annuity Act of Canada, by Walter F. Fade.
Central Departments Supervising the Administration of Foreign Compulsory Old-Age Insurance Laws, by Martha D. Ring.
Old-Age Pension Statistics, compiled by Wilbur J. Cohen.

Industrial and Trade-Union Systems.

Industrial Pension Systems, by Murray W. Latimer.
Industrial and Trade-Union Pension Systems, by Wilbur J. Cohen.

Factual Reports.

Estimated Costs of Old-Age Pensions to the States, by Edwin E. Witte.
Comparison of the I. L. O. Draft Convention on Compulsory Old-Age Insurance with the Committee's Recommendations, by Olga S. Halsey.

Papers Written in Support of Old-Age Security Provisions at the Social Security Bill After the Introduction of the Bill into Congress.

Statement on Old-Age Insurance Provisions, by Murray W. Latimer.
Memorandum on Proposed Amendments to Economic Security Bill Permitting Employers with Private Pension Plans to Contract Out of the Government System, by Murray W. Latimer.


Brief in Defense of Old-Age Benefits, by Joseph P. Harris.
Explanation of the Old-Age Pension Provisions in the Social Security Bill, by Joseph P. Harris and staff.
Summary of the Principal Arguments Against Permitting Industrial Retirement Systems to Contract Out of the System of State Old-Age Benefits, by Joseph P. Harris.
Statement of the Probable Costs of Gratuitous Old-Age Pensions With and Without the Establishment of a System of Federal Old-Age Benefits, by Joseph P. Harris.

Townsend Old-Age Pension Plan.

An Analysis of the McGroarty Bill, by Edwin E. Witte.
Factual Data Relating to the Townsend Old-Age Revolving Pension Plan, by Edwin E. Witte.
Why the Townsend Old-Age Revolving Pension Plan is Impossible, by Edwin E. Witte.



Security for Children, by Katharine F. Lenroot and Dr. Martha M. Eliot in consultation with the Advisory Committee on Child Welfare.


Security for Children ( Summary of Recommendations), by the Children's Bureau.
Security for Children (Summary of Recommendations and Provisions of Bill), by the Children's Bureau.



A Permanent Program of Public Employment and Relief, by Emerson Ross.


Factual Reports.

General Facts Regarding the Measures Taken During the Present Depression to Provide Employment, by Emerson Ross.
The Unemployment and Relief Problem in the Depression Period, by Paul Webbink.

Discussions and Recommendations.

The Unemployed in the Social Security Program, by Edwin E. Witte.
Possible Expansion and Limiting Factors of a Work Program, by Emerson Ross.
Permanent Organization of Relief, by Paul Webbink.

Special Studies.

The Employment Offices and the Emergency Works Program, by Gladys L. Palmer.
A Brief Review of the Operations of the Public Works Administration, by Harold B. Mistr.
The Mayor Occupational Characteristics of the Unemployed in Three Pennsylvania Counties, October 31, 1934, by Gladys L. Palmer.
Theories With Regard to Unemployment Relief Now or Formerly Held in England, by Edwin E. Witte.




Planned Organization for the Extension of Employment Opportunity and Economic Security, by Meredith B. Givens.


Who are the Unemployed? A Statistical Analysis of Employment Office Records, by Gladys L. Palmer.
Employment Opportunity for the Middle-Aged and Older Worker: A Statistical Summary, by Wilbur J. Cohen and I. Rittenhouse.
The United States Employment Service: History and Development, by Gladys L. Palmer.
A Survey of Occupational Studies, by O. Milton Hall.
A Program of Government Work for the Unemployed: An Appraisal of Philadelphia Experience, by Ewan Clague.
The Integrated Treatment of Unemployment Insurance, Cash Relief, and Emergency Work, by Eveline M. Burns.
Significant Phases of Foreign Experience, by Eveline M. Burns.


The von Papen Subsidy to Industry, by Olga S. Halsey.
The Creation of Employment, by Frank D. Graham.
The Federal Regulation of Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Doing Business In Interstate and Foreign Commerce, by John B. Andrews.
Draft Convention and Recommendation Concerning Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Adopted June 8, 1933, by Olga S. Halsey.



Risks to Economic Security Arising from Ill Health, by the Staff Assigned to Health and Sickness Studies.


Estimates of the Wage Loss and Medical Costs of Illness, by Martha D. Ring.
Medical Service in Europe, by Michael M. Davis.
Public-Health Activities of the Federal Government, by G. St. J. Perrott.



Preliminary Report of the Staff of the Committee on Economic Security, by Edwin E. Witte and Staff.
Suggestions for a Long-Time and an Immediate Program for Economic Security Submitted for Consideration to the Advisory Council, by Edwin E. Witte.

Constitutional Issue.

Discussion of Constitutionality of Possible Federal-State Plans for Unemployment Insurance and Old-Age Pensions, by Thomas H. Eliot.
Constitutional Aspects of Social Insurance, by Alexander Holtzog.
Memorandum on Constitutionality of a Straight National Old-Age Insurance and Unemployment Insurance Scheme, by Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong.


Legal Basis of Compulsory Unemployment Insurance, by James Harrington Boyd.

Financial Aspects.

The Financing of the Economic Security Program, by Joseph P. Harris.

Federal-State Relationships.

Federal-State Relationships, by Jane Perry Clark.

Insurance, Savings, and Income.

Report on Life Insurance With Special Reference to Industrial Insurance, by Edward Berman.
To What Extent Does Life Insurance Function as a Savings Institution to Meet Need for Security?, by Ralph B. Harris.
Summary of the Trend of Savings Through Life Insurance, 1929-1933, by Ralph B. Harris.
The Volume of Savings in the United States, 1926-1933, by Martha D. Ring.
The Average Weekly Incomes of American Wage Earners, by Martha D. Ring.

Survivors' Insurance.

American and European Provision for Survivors: The Pensions and Beneficiaries, by Olga S. Halsey.

Invalidity Insurance.

Analysis of American Data Showing Invalidity Below 65, by Olga S. Halsey.
Invalidity Insurance: American and British Experience, With Recommendations, by Olga S. Halsey.

Workmen's Compensation.

Workmen's Compensation, by S. Kjaer.
The Need for and the Existing Situation Regarding Workmen's Compensation for Employees of Common Carriers Engaged in Interstate Commerce, by Olga S. Halsey.

Security for Agricultural Workers.

The Economic Security Progam in Relation to Farm Operators and Employees, by Dr. Louis H. Bean.
Economic Security of Farmers and Agricultural Workers, by Josiah C. Folsom.
The Bearing of the Program of the Committee on Economic Security Upon Farmers and Farm Laborers, by William T. Ham.
Agricultural Workers and Farmers in Foreign Social Insurance Systems, by Constance A. Kiehel.
Standards for Old-Age Insurance, Invalidity Insurance, Widows' and Orphans' Insurance, and Sickness Insurance for Agricultural Workers Contained in the Draft Conventions of the International Labour Office.
Agricultural Workers in Foreign Unemployment Insurance Schemes, by Natalie F. Jaros.

Social Insurance Abroad.

Social Insurance Authorities Abroad, by Martha D. Ring.
Social Insurance in France, by Martha D. Ring.
Social Insurance in Italy, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Social Insurance System in Soviet Russia, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Legislation in New Zealand Directed Toward Economic Security, by Marianne Sakmann.
Legislation in Australia Directed Toward Economic Security, by Marianne Sakmann.


Economic Reform and Security Proposals.

The Deane Plan, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Background of the Deane Plan, by G. Reginald Crosby.
The Deane Plan, by G. Reginald Crosby.

Miscellaneous Studies.

Possibilities of a Unified System of Insurance Against Loss of Earnings, by Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong.
Social Insurance: Its Place in a Program of Economic Security, by Barbara Nachtrieb Armstrong.
Possible General Approaches to the Problem of Economic Security, by Edwin E. Witte.
The Meaning of the Term "Social Insurance", by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Security for the Blind, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Considerations on Social Insurance, by William R. Williamson.
Legislative History of the Social Security Act, by Wilbur J. Cohen.
Statement Concerning the Effect of the Social Security Bill Upon States' Rights, by Joseph P. Harris.
Memorandum Concerning the Total Cost of the Social Security Bill, by Committee on Economic Security Staff.
The Social Security Act and Sales Taxes, by Edwin E. Witte.
Why the Social Security Board Should be in the Labor Department, by Edwin E. Witte.


Report to the President of the Committee on Economic Security.
Toward Economic Security (Radio Addresses), by members of the Committee on Economic Security and its staff.
Security (Principal Papers at the National Conference on Economic Security), by President Roosevelt and others.
The Need for Economic Security in the United States.
Unemployment Insurance in the Economic Security Program, by the Committee on Economic Security.
Old-Age Security in the Economic Security Program, by the Committee on Economic Security.
Child Welfare in the Economic Security Program, by the Committee on Economic Security.
Features of the Economic Security Program, by Edwin E. Witte.
Social Security at Home and Abroad, by the Committee on Economic Security.
The Program for Economic Security, by the Committee on Economic Security.
What is Social Insurance? by the Committee on Economic Security.