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PROHIBITIONS; REQUIREMENTS

Sec408[42 U.S.C. 608] (a) In General.—

(1) No assistance for families without a minor child.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance to a family unless the family includes a minor child who resides with the family (consistent with paragraph (10)) or a pregnant individual.

(2) Reduction or elimination of assistance for noncooperation in establishing paternity or obtaining child support.—If the agency responsible for administering the State plan approved under part D determines that an individual is not cooperating with the State in establishing paternity or in establishing, modifying, or enforcing a support order with respect to a child of the individual, and the individual does not qualify for any good cause or other exception established by the State pursuant to section 454(29), then the State—

(A) shall deduct from the assistance that would otherwise be provided to the family of the individual under the State program funded under this part an amount equal to not less than 25 percent of the amount of such assistance; and

(B) may deny the family any assistance under the State program.

(3) No assistance for families not assigning certain support rights to the state.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall require, as a condition of paying assistance to a family under the State program funded under this part, that a member of the family assign to the State any right the family member may have (on behalf of the family member or of any other person for whom the family member has applied for or is receiving such assistance) to support from any other person, not exceeding the total amount of assistance so paid to the family, which accrues during the period that the family receives assistance under the program.

(4) No assistance for teenage parents who do not attend high school or other equivalent training program.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance to an individual who has not attained 18 years of age, is not married, has a minor child at least 12 weeks of age in his or her care, and has not successfully completed a high-school education (or its equivalent), if the individual does not participate in—

(A) educational activities directed toward the attainment of a high school diploma or its equivalent; or

(B) an alternative educational or training program that has been approved by the State.

(5) No assistance for teenage parents not living in adult-supervised settings.—

(A) In general.—

(i) Requirement.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance to an individual described in clause (ii) of this subparagraph if the individual and the minor child referred to in clause (ii)(II) do not reside in a place of residence maintained by a parent, legal guardian, or other adult relative of the individual as such parent’s, guardian’s, or adult relative’s own home.

(ii) Individual described.—For purposes of clause (i), an individual described in this clause is an individual who—

(I) has not attained 18 years of age; and

(II) is not married, and has a minor child in his or her care.

(B) Exception.—

(i) Provision of, or assistance in locating, adult-supervised living arrangement.—In the case of an individual who is described in clause (ii), the State agency referred to in section 402(a)(4) shall provide, or assist the individual in locating, a second chance home, maternity home, or other appropriate adult-supervised supportive living arrangement, taking into consideration the needs and concerns of the individual, unless the State agency determines that the individual’s current living arrangement is appropriate, and thereafter shall require that the individual and the minor child referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) reside in such living arrangement as a condition of the continued receipt of assistance under the State program funded under this part attributable to funds provided by the Federal Government (or in an alternative appropriate arrangement, should circumstances change and the current arrangement cease to be appropriate).

(ii) Individual described.—For purposes of clause (i), an individual is described in this clause if the individual is described in subparagraph (A)(ii), and—

(I) the individual has no parent, legal guardian, or other appropriate adult relative described in subclause (II) of his or her own who is living or whose whereabouts are known;

(II) no living parent, legal guardian, or other appropriate adult relative, who would otherwise meet applicable State criteria to act as the individual’s legal guardian, of such individual allows the individual to live in the home of such parent, guardian, or relative;

(III) the State agency determines that—

(aa) the individual or the minor child referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) is being or has been subjected to serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation in the residence of the individual’s own parent or legal guardian; or

(bb) substantial evidence exists of an act or failure to act that presents an imminent or serious harm if the individual and the minor child lived in the same residence with the individual’s own parent or legal guardian; or

(IV) the State agency otherwise determines that it is in the best interest of the minor child to waive the requirement of subparagraph (A) with respect to the individual or the minor child.

(iii) Second-chance home.—For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “second-chance home” means an entity that provides individuals described in clause (ii) with a supportive and supervised living arrangement in which such individuals are required to learn parenting skills, including child development, family budgeting, health and nutrition, and other skills to promote their long-term economic independence and the well-being of their children.

(6) No medical services.—

(A) In general.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide medical services.

(B) Exception for prepregnancy family planning services.—As used in subparagraph (A), the term “medical services” does not include prepregnancy family planning services.

(7) No assistance for more than 5 years.—

(A) In general.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance to a family that includes an adult who has received assistance under any State program funded under this part attributable to funds provided by the Federal Government, for 60 months (whether or not consecutive) after the date the State program funded under this part commences, subject to this paragraph.

(B) Minor child exception.—In determining the number of months for which an individual who is a parent or pregnant has received assistance under the State program funded under this part, the State shall disregard any month for which such assistance was provided with respect to the individual and during which the individual was—

(i) a minor child; and

(ii) not the head of a household or married to the head of a household.

(C) Hardship exception.—

(i) In general.—The State may exempt a family from the application of subparagraph (A) by reason of hardship or if the family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty.

(ii) Limitation.—The average monthly number of families with respect to which an exemption made by a State under clause (i) is in effect for a fiscal year shall not exceed 20 percent of the average monthly number of families to which assistance is provided under the State program funded under this part during the fiscal year or the immediately preceding fiscal year (but not both), as the State may elect.

(iii) Battered or subject to extreme cruelty defined.—For purposes of clause (i), an individual has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty if the individual has been subjected to—

(I) physical acts that resulted in, or threatened to result in, physical injury to the individual;

(II) sexual abuse;

(III) sexual activity involving a dependent child;

(IV) being forced as the caretaker relative of a dependent child to engage in nonconsensual sexual acts or activities;

(V) threats of, or attempts at, physical or sexual abuse;

(VI) mental abuse; or

(VII) neglect or deprivation of medical care.

(D) Disregard of months of assistance received by adult while living in indian country or an alaskan native village with 50 percent unemployment.—

(i) In general.—In determining the number of months for which an adult has received assistance under a State or tribal program funded under this part, the State or tribe shall disregard any month during which the adult lived in Indian country or an Alaskan Native village if the most reliable data available with respect to the month (or a period including the month) indicate that at least 50 percent of the adults living in Indian country or in the village were not employed.

(ii) Indian country defined.—As used in clause (i), the term “Indian country” has the meaning given such term in section 1151 of title 18, United States Code[38].

(E) Rule of interpretation.—Subparagraph (A) shall not be interpreted to require any State to provide assistance to any individual for any period of time under the State program funded under this part.

(F) Rule of interpretation.—This part shall not be interpreted to prohibit any State from expending State funds not originating with the Federal Government on benefits for children or families that have become ineligible for assistance under the State program funded under this part by reason of subparagraph (A).

(G) Inapplicability to welfare-to-work grants and assistance.—For purposes of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, a grant made under section 403(a)(5) shall not be considered a grant made under section 403, and noncash assistance from funds provided under section 403(a)(5) shall not be considered assistance.

(8) Denial of assistance for 10 years to a person found to have fraudulently misrepresented residence in order to obtain assistance in 2 or more states.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide cash assistance to an individual during the 10-year period that begins on the date the individual is convicted in Federal or State court of having made a fraudulent statement or representation with respect to the place of residence of the individual in order to receive assistance simultaneously from 2 or more States under programs that are funded under this title, title XIX, or the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008[39], or benefits in 2 or more States under the supplemental security income program under title XVI. The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to a conviction of an individual, for any month beginning after the President of the United States grants a pardon with respect to the conduct which was the subject of the conviction.

(9) Denial of assistance for fugitive felons and probation and parole violators.—

(A) In general.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance to any individual who is—

(i) fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, for a crime, or an attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or which, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of such State; or

(ii) violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.

The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to conduct of an individual, for any month beginning after the President of the United States grants a pardon with respect to the conduct.

(B) Exchange of information with law enforcement agencies.—If a State to which a grant is made under section 403 establishes safeguards against the use or disclosure of information about applicants or recipients of assistance under the State program funded under this part, the safeguards shall not prevent the State agency administering the program from furnishing a Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer, upon the request of the officer, with the current address of any recipient if the officer furnishes the agency with the name of the recipient and notifies the agency that—

(i) the recipient—

(I) is described in subparagraph (A); or

(II) has information that is necessary for the officer to conduct the official duties of the officer; and

(ii) the location or apprehension of the recipient is within such official duties.

(10) Denial of assistance for minor children who are absent from the home for a significant period.—

(A) In general.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance for a minor child who has been, or is expected by a parent (or other caretaker relative) of the child to be, absent from the home for a period of 45 consecutive days or, at the option of the State, such period of not less than 30 and not more than 180 consecutive days as the State may provide for in the State plan submitted pursuant to section 402.

(B) State authority to establish good cause exceptions.—The State may establish such good cause exceptions to subparagraph (A) as the State considers appropriate if such exceptions are provided for in the State plan submitted pursuant to section 402.

(C) Denial of assistance for relative who fails to notify state agency of absence of child.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall not use any part of the grant to provide assistance for an individual who is a parent (or other caretaker relative) of a minor child and who fails to notify the agency administering the State program funded under this part of the absence of the minor child from the home for the period specified in or provided for pursuant to subparagraph (A), by the end of the 5-day period that begins with the date that it becomes clear to the parent (or relative) that the minor child will be absent for such period so specified or provided for.

(11) Medical assistance required to be provided for certain families having earnings from employment or child support.—

(A) Earnings from employment.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 and which has a State plan approved under title XIX shall provide that in the case of a family that is treated (under section 1931(b)(1)(A) for purposes of title XIX) as receiving aid under a State plan approved under this part (as in effect on July 16, 1996), that would become ineligible for such aid because of hours of or income from employment of the caretaker relative (as defined under this part as in effect on such date) or because of section 402(a)(8)(B)(ii)(II) (as so in effect), and that was so treated as receiving such aid in at least 3 of the 6 months immediately preceding the month in which such ineligibility begins, the family shall remain eligible for medical assistance under the State’s plan approved under title XIX for an extended period or periods as provided in section 1925 or 1902(e)(1) (as applicable), and that the family will be appropriately notified of such extension as required by section 1925(a)(2).

(B) Child support.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 and which has a State plan approved under title XIX shall provide that in the case of a family that is treated (under section 1931(b)(1)(A) for purposes of title XIX) as receiving aid under a State plan approved under this part (as in effect on July 16, 1996), that would become ineligible for such aid as a result (wholly or partly) of the collection of child or spousal support under part D and that was so treated as receiving such aid in at least 3 of the 6 months immediately preceding the month in which such ineligibility begins, the family shall remain eligible for medical assistance under the State’s plan approved under title XIX for an extended period or periods as provided in section 1931(c)(1).

(12)[40] State requirement to prevent unauthorized spending of benefits.—

(A) In general.—A State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall maintain policies and practices as necessary to prevent assistance provided under the State program funded under this part from being used in any electronic benefit transfer transaction in—

(i) any liquor store;

(ii) any casino, gambling casino, or gaming establishment; or

(iii) any retail establishment which provides adult-oriented entertainment in which performers disrobe or perform in an unclothed state for entertainment.

(B) Definitions.—For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) Liquor store.— The term “liquor store” means any retail establishment which sells exclusively or primarily intoxicating liquor. Such term does not include a grocery store which sells both intoxicating liquor and groceries including staple foods (within the meaning of section 3(r) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2012(r))).

(ii) Casino, gambling casino, or gaming establishment.—The terms “casino”, “gambling casino”, and “gaming establishment” do not include—

(I) a grocery store which sells groceries including such staple foods and which also offers, or is located within the same building or complex as, casino, gambling, or gaming activities; or

(II) any other establishment that offers casino, gambling, or gaming activities incidental to the principal purpose of the business.

(iii) Electronic benefit transfer transaction.—The term “electronic benefit transfer transaction” means the use of a credit or debit card service, automated teller machine, point-of-sale terminal, or access to an online system for the withdrawal of funds or the processing of a payment for merchandise or a service.

(b) Individual Responsibility Plans.—

(1) Assessment.—The State agency responsible for administering the State program funded under this part shall make an initial assessment of the skills, prior work experience, and employability of each recipient of assistance under the program who—

(A) has attained 18 years of age; or

(B) has not completed high school or obtained a certificate of high school equivalency, and is not attending secondary school.

(2) Contents of plans.—

(A) In general.—On the basis of the assessment made under subsection (a) with respect to an individual, the State agency, in consultation with the individual, may develop an individual responsibility plan for the individual, which—

(i) sets forth an employment goal for the individual and a plan for moving the individual immediately into private sector employment;

(ii) sets forth the obligations of the individual, which may include a requirement that the individual attend school, maintain certain grades and attendance, keep school age children of the individual in school, immunize children, attend parenting and money management classes, or do other things that will help the individual become and remain employed in the private sector;

(iii) to the greatest extent possible is designed to move the individual into whatever private sector employment the individual is capable of handling as quickly as possible, and to increase the responsibility and amount of work the individual is to handle over time;

(iv) describes the services the State will provide the individual so that the individual will be able to obtain and keep employment in the private sector, and describe the job counseling and other services that will be provided by the State; and

(v) may require the individual to undergo appropriate substance abuse treatment.

(B) Timing.—The State agency may comply with paragraph (1) with respect to an individual—

(i) within 90 days (or, at the option of the State, 180 days) after the effective date of this part, in the case of an individual who, as of such effective date, is a recipient of aid under the State plan approved under part A (as in effect immediately before such effective date); or

(ii) within 30 days (or, at the option of the State, 90 days) after the individual is determined to be eligible for such assistance, in the case of any other individual.

(3) Penalty for noncompliance by individual.—In addition to any other penalties required under the State program funded under this part, the State may reduce, by such amount as the State considers appropriate, the amount of assistance otherwise payable under the State program to a family that includes an individual who fails without good cause to comply with a responsibility plan signed by the individual.

(4) State discretion.—The exercise of the authority of this subsection shall be within the sole discretion of the State.

(c) Sanctions Against Recipients Not Considered Wage Reductions.—A penalty imposed by a State against the family of an individual by reason of the failure of the individual to comply with a requirement under the State program funded under this part shall not be construed to be a reduction in any wage paid to the individual.

(d) Nondiscrimination Provisions.—The following provisions of law shall apply to any program or activity which receives funds provided under this part:

(1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975[41] (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.).

(2) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973[42] (29 U.S.C. 794).

(3) The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990[43] (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.).

(4) Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964[44] (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.).

(e) Special Rules Relating to Treatment of Certain Aliens.—For special rules relating to the treatment of certain aliens, see title IV of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996[45].

(f) Special Rules Relating to the Treatment of Non-213a Aliens.—The following rules shall apply if a State elects to take the income or resources of any sponsor of a non-213A alien into account in determining whether the alien is eligible for assistance under the State program funded under this part, or in determining the amount or types of such assistance to be provided to the alien:

(1) Deeming of sponsor’s income and resources.—For a period of 3 years after a non-213A alien enters the United States:

(A) Income deeming rule.—The income of any sponsor of the alien and of any spouse of the sponsor is deemed to be income of the alien, to the extent that the total amount of the income exceeds the sum of—

(i) the lesser of—

(I) 20 percent of the total of any amounts received by the sponsor or any such spouse in the month as wages or salary or as net earnings from self-employment, plus the full amount of any costs incurred by the sponsor and any such spouse in producing self-employment income in such month; or

(II) $175;

(ii) the cash needs standard established by the State for purposes of determining eligibility for assistance under the State program funded under this part for a family of the same size and composition as the sponsor and any other individuals living in the same household as the sponsor who are claimed by the sponsor as dependents for purposes of determining the sponsor’s Federal personal income tax liability but whose needs are not taken into account in determining whether the sponsor’s family has met the cash needs standard;

(iii) any amounts paid by the sponsor or any such spouse to individuals not living in the household who are claimed by the sponsor as dependents for purposes of determining the sponsor’s Federal personal income tax liability; and

(iv) any payments of alimony or child support with respect to individuals not living in the household.

(B) Resource deeming rule.—The resources of a sponsor of the alien and of any spouse of the sponsor are deemed to be resources of the alien to the extent that the aggregate value of the resources exceeds $1,500.

(C) Sponsors of multiple non-213a aliens.—If a person is a sponsor of 2 or more non-213A aliens who are living in the same home, the income and resources of the sponsor and any spouse of the sponsor that would be deemed income and resources of any such alien under subparagraph (A) shall be divided into a number of equal shares equal to the number of such aliens, and the State shall deem the income and resources of each such alien to include 1 such share.

(2) Ineligibility of non-213a aliens sponsored by agencies; exception.—A non-213A alien whose sponsor is or was a public or private agency shall be ineligible for assistance under a State program funded under this part, during a period of 3 years after the alien enters the United States, unless the State agency administering the program determines that the sponsor either no longer exists or has become unable to meet the alien’s needs.

(3) Information provisions.—

(A) Duties of non-213a aliens.—A non-213A alien, as a condition of eligibility for assistance under a State program funded under this part during the period of 3 years after the alien enters the United States, shall be required to provide to the State agency administering the program—

(i) such information and documentation with respect to the alien’s sponsor as may be necessary in order for the State agency to make any determination required under this subsection, and to obtain any cooperation from the sponsor necessary for any such determination; and

(ii) such information and documentation as the State agency may request and which the alien or the alien’s sponsor provided in support of the alien’s immigration application.

(B) Duties of federal agencies.—The Secretary shall enter into agreements with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General under which any information available to them and required in order to make any determination under this subsection will be provided by them to the Secretary (who may, in turn, make the information available, upon request, to a concerned State agency).

(4) Non-213a alien defined.—An alien is a non-213A alien for purposes of this subsection if the affidavit of support or similar agreement with respect to the alien that was executed by the sponsor of the alien’s entry into the United States was executed other than pursuant to section 213A of the Immigration and Nationality Act[46].

(5) Inapplicability to alien minor sponsored by a parent.—This subsection shall not apply to an alien who is a minor child if the sponsor of the alien or any spouse of the sponsor is a parent of the alien.

(6) Inapplicability to certain categories of aliens.—This subsection shall not apply to an alien who is—

(A) admitted to the United States as a refugee under section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act;

(B) paroled into the United States under section 212(d)(5) of such Act for a period of at least 1 year; or

(C) granted political asylum by the Attorney General under section 208 of such Act[47].

(g) State Required to Provide Certain Information.—Each State to which a grant is made under section 403 shall, at least 4 times annually and upon request of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, furnish the Immigration and Naturalization Service with the name and address of, and other identifying information on, any individual who the State knows is not lawfully present in the United States


[38]  See Vol. II, 18 U.S.C. 1151.

[39]  P.L. 88-525.

[40]  P.L. 112-96, 4004(a), added this new paragraph (12), effective February 22, 2012.

[41]  P.L. 94-135.

[42]  See Vol. II, P.L. 93-112, §504.

[43]  P.L. 101-336.

[44]  See Vol. II, P.L. 88-352, Title VI.

[45]  See Vol. II, P.L. 104-193, §§411, 412, 421, 422, and 435.

[46]  See Vol. II, P.L. 82-414, §213A.

[47]  See Vol. II, P.L. 82-414, §§207, 212(d)(5) and 208.