Comparing Earnings Estimates from the 2006 Earnings Public-Use File and the Annual Statistical Supplement

by Michael Compson
Research and Statistics Note No. 2012-01 (released January 2012)
Table equivalent for Chart 1. Value of earnings in the ESF, 1937–2000 (in billions of dollars)
Year Earnings
(billions of dollars)
1937 0.32
1938 0.15
1939 0.13
1940 0.10
1941 0.16
1942 0.24
1943 0.24
1944 0.18
1945 0.20
1946 0.22
1947 0.23
1948 0.24
1949 0.19
1950 0.21
1951 0.33
1952 0.31
1953 0.28
1954 0.26
1955 0.42
1956 0.44
1957 0.48
1958 0.43
1959 0.46
1960 0.43
1961 0.39
1962 0.42
1963 0.42
1964 0.48
1965 0.57
1966 0.77
1967 0.97
1968 1.10
1969 1.30
1970 1.36
1971 1.37
1972 1.77
1973 2.17
1974 2.20
1975 1.97
1976 2.26
1977 3.02
1978 3.60
1979 5.16
1980 6.22
1981 7.09
1982 6.84
1983 7.32
1984 8.49
1985 10.49
1986 11.79
1987 12.36
1988 10.10
1989 7.42
1990 9.29
1991 9.82
1992 11.43
1993 14.76
1994 16.26
1995 18.66
1996 22.30
1997 26.20
1998 31.20
1999 39.00
2000 49.40
SOURCE: SSA (2002).
Table equivalent for Chart 2. Percentage point difference between Supplement and underlying EPUF sample estimates of taxable earnings, 1951–2006
Year Percentage point difference
1951 0.07
1952 -0.11
1953 0.06
1954 0.08
1955 0.31
1956 0.10
1957 -0.23
1958 0.32
1959 0.41
1960 0.13
1961 0.24
1962 0.15
1963 0.15
1964 0.17
1965 0.37
1966 0.28
1967 0.76
1968 0.34
1969 0.28
1970 0.33
1971 0.33
1972 0.34
1973 0.49
1974 0.43
1975 0.22
1976 0.35
1977 0.54
1978 0.32
1979 0.07
1980 1.07
1981 0.33
1982 0.88
1983 0.96
1984 1.61
1985 0.96
1986 1.43
1987 1.06
1988 0.26
1989 0.65
1990 0.55
1991 0.61
1992 0.57
1993 0.69
1994 0.54
1995 0.58
1996 0.56
1997 0.60
1998 0.73
1999 0.91
2000 1.08
2001 1.23
2002 1.37
2003 1.44
2004 1.67
2005 2.35
2006 3.24
SOURCES: SSA (2009, Table 4.B1) and author's calculations using underlying EPUF sample.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 3. Percentage of taxable earnings removed from the underlying EPUF sample, by reason, 1951–2006
Year Capping taxable earnings Capping taxable earnings, data cleaning, and disclosure prevention
1951 2.06 2.54
1952 2.43 2.90
1953 2.67 3.13
1954 2.45 2.90
1955 1.92 2.37
1956 2.25 2.70
1957 2.37 2.79
1958 2.25 2.67
1959 2.04 2.46
1960 2.13 2.53
1961 2.17 2.56
1962 2.44 2.83
1963 2.55 2.93
1964 2.84 3.22
1965 3.17 3.55
1966 2.04 2.41
1967 2.24 2.60
1968 1.83 2.18
1969 2.22 2.57
1970 2.30 2.64
1971 2.38 2.72
1972 2.06 2.39
1973 1.63 1.95
1974 1.17 1.49
1975 1.07 1.38
1976 1.07 1.37
1977 1.07 1.36
1978 1.34 1.61
1979 0.88 1.14
1980 0.79 1.03
1981 0.70 0.92
1982 0.63 0.84
1983 0.56 0.76
1984 0.61 0.79
1985 0.62 0.80
1986 0.60 0.76
1987 0.59 0.75
1988 0.63 0.77
1989 0.61 0.75
1990 0.56 0.69
1991 0.54 0.67
1992 0.58 0.70
1993 0.61 0.73
1994 0.66 0.77
1995 0.70 0.81
1996 0.78 0.89
1997 0.83 0.94
1998 0.87 0.98
1999 0.86 0.96
2000 1.00 1.11
2001 0.84 0.94
2002 0.68 0.77
2003 0.64 0.74
2004 0.71 0.81
2005 0.77 0.86
2006 0.84 0.93
SOURCE: Author's calculations using the underlying EPUF sample.
Table equivalent for Chart 4. Comparing earnings estimates: Percentage point differences between underlying EPUF sample and Supplement estimates and between final EPUF and Supplement estimates: 1951–2006
Year Underlying EPUF sample Final EPUF
1951 0.07 2.61
1952 -0.11 2.81
1953 0.06 3.19
1954 0.08 2.98
1955 0.31 2.69
1956 0.10 2.80
1957 -0.23 2.58
1958 0.32 3.00
1959 0.41 2.87
1960 0.13 2.67
1961 0.24 2.81
1962 0.15 2.99
1963 0.15 3.09
1964 0.17 3.40
1965 0.37 3.92
1966 0.28 2.71
1967 0.76 3.37
1968 0.34 2.55
1969 0.28 2.87
1970 0.33 2.98
1971 0.33 3.06
1972 0.34 2.76
1973 0.49 2.47
1974 0.43 1.95
1975 0.22 1.64
1976 0.35 1.75
1977 0.54 1.93
1978 0.32 1.98
1979 0.07 1.26
1980 1.07 2.14
1981 0.33 1.29
1982 0.88 1.75
1983 0.96 1.76
1984 1.61 2.43
1985 0.96 1.80
1986 1.43 2.22
1987 1.06 1.84
1988 0.26 1.06
1989 0.65 1.42
1990 0.55 1.26
1991 0.61 1.29
1992 0.57 1.30
1993 0.69 1.44
1994 0.54 1.34
1995 0.58 1.42
1996 0.56 1.47
1997 0.60 1.56
1998 0.73 1.73
1999 0.91 1.89
2000 1.08 2.21
2001 1.23 2.19
2002 1.37 2.16
2003 1.44 2.20
2004 1.67 2.50
2005 2.35 3.22
2006 3.24 4.17
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF underlying sample and final EPUF.
NOTES: Supplement and underlying EPUF sample use taxable earnings; final EPUF uses capped taxable earnings.
Charted values are the percentage point differences between the indicated estimates and the Supplement estimate.
2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 5. Comparing the percentage point spread between the differences in estimates in Chart 4 with the proportion of workers whose earnings exceed the taxable maximum, 1951–2006
Year Percentage point spread between lines in Chart 4 Percentage of workers with earnings exceeding the taxable maximum
1951 2.54 24.50
1952 2.92 27.90
1953 3.13 31.20
1954 2.90 31.60
1955 2.38 25.60
1956 2.70 28.40
1957 2.81 29.90
1958 2.68 30.60
1959 2.46 26.70
1960 2.54 28.00
1961 2.57 29.20
1962 2.84 31.20
1963 2.94 32.50
1964 3.23 34.50
1965 3.55 36.10
1966 2.43 24.20
1967 2.61 26.40
1968 2.21 21.40
1969 2.59 24.50
1970 2.65 26.00
1971 2.73 28.30
1972 2.42 25.00
1973 1.98 20.30
1974 1.52 15.10
1975 1.42 15.10
1976 1.40 14.90
1977 1.39 14.80
1978 1.66 15.40
1979 1.19 10.00
1980 1.07 8.80
1981 0.96 7.60
1982 0.87 7.10
1983 0.80 6.30
1984 0.82 6.40
1985 0.84 6.50
1986 0.79 6.20
1987 0.78 6.10
1988 0.80 6.50
1989 0.77 6.20
1990 0.71 5.70
1991 0.68 5.60
1992 0.73 5.70
1993 0.75 5.60
1994 0.80 5.40
1995 0.84 5.80
1996 0.91 6.10
1997 0.96 6.20
1998 1.00 6.30
1999 0.98 6.10
2000 1.13 6.20
2001 0.96 5.90
2002 0.79 5.40
2003 0.76 5.50
2004 0.83 5.90
2005 0.87 6.10
2006 0.93 6.00
SOURCES: SSA (2009, Table 4.B4) and author's calculations using EPUF and the underlying EPUF sample.
NOTES: "Percentage point spread" equals the percentage-point difference between the final EPUF earnings estimate and the Supplement earnings estimate minus the percentage-point difference between the underlying EPUF sample earnings estimate and the Supplement estimate.
2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 are based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 6. Number of workers in the underlying EPUF sample with multiple employers and earnings exceeding the taxable maximum, 1951–2006
Year Number of workers
1951 33,355
1952 40,350
1953 45,188
1954 39,582
1955 34,601
1956 41,842
1957 46,422
1958 43,792
1959 40,621
1960 42,240
1961 42,634
1962 48,174
1963 51,602
1964 57,770
1965 65,870
1966 46,683
1967 51,712
1968 45,030
1969 55,196
1970 56,187
1971 57,329
1972 50,485
1973 42,432
1974 30,207
1975 26,629
1976 26,557
1977 27,506
1978 30,445
1979 18,870
1980 16,227
1981 13,761
1982 12,063
1983 10,538
1984 11,687
1985 12,386
1986 11,835
1987 12,016
1988 13,462
1989 13,169
1990 12,051
1991 11,599
1992 11,851
1993 12,061
1994 12,633
1995 14,190
1996 15,467
1997 16,650
1998 17,807
1999 17,445
2000 19,858
2001 17,209
2002 14,078
2003 13,785
2004 15,473
2005 16,298
2006 16,772
SOURCE: Author's calculations using the underlying EPUF sample.
Table equivalent for Chart 7. EPUF estimates of the number of workers as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, workers younger than age 60 by age group, 1951–2006
Year Age group
Under 20 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59
1951 98.78 100.02 98.28 97.73 97.11 98.68 98.27 99.18 104.65
1952 98.11 101.06 98.83 97.31 97.37 98.95 98.87 97.90 105.83
1953 98.50 100.41 99.03 97.76 96.02 98.43 98.15 98.46 103.07
1954 98.42 100.47 99.57 98.16 96.58 98.36 98.15 98.52 101.94
1955 98.14 100.31 99.33 98.13 97.32 98.18 97.90 99.33 99.89
1956 98.39 99.79 99.69 98.41 97.90 97.55 98.96 99.02 101.19
1957 98.19 99.92 100.12 98.74 97.72 97.68 99.23 98.77 100.81
1958 98.64 100.25 100.58 99.16 98.35 97.12 99.11 99.44 100.95
1959 98.47 99.64 100.21 99.08 97.94 96.69 98.25 98.21 100.86
1960 98.92 99.48 100.87 99.43 98.13 97.26 98.14 98.85 101.39
1961 98.89 99.64 100.36 99.63 97.97 97.57 97.79 99.65 100.22
1962 98.97 99.44 100.19 100.27 98.62 97.77 97.72 99.54 100.35
1963 98.38 99.72 100.14 100.56 99.02 98.07 97.09 99.35 100.30
1964 98.71 100.05 99.51 100.45 99.83 98.26 96.97 99.42 100.42
1965 98.26 99.93 99.44 100.47 99.61 98.02 97.41 98.73 100.13
1966 98.13 99.39 100.23 100.18 100.32 98.52 97.77 98.31 101.18
1967 97.44 99.19 98.65 99.60 100.16 98.57 97.22 97.92 100.50
1968 97.44 99.60 99.38 100.10 100.65 99.38 98.34 97.24 101.61
1969 96.84 99.89 99.81 99.94 100.87 99.77 98.86 97.51 101.21
1970 96.98 99.41 99.37 99.41 100.54 99.57 98.30 97.47 99.77
1971 96.50 99.35 99.12 100.27 99.94 99.97 98.56 97.50 99.06
1972 97.29 99.25 99.07 98.96 99.67 99.96 99.04 97.52 98.68
1973 96.78 99.70 99.29 99.32 99.83 100.16 99.26 98.24 97.51
1974 97.17 99.55 99.42 99.79 99.51 100.41 99.40 98.71 97.10
1975 97.34 99.62 99.77 100.26 99.71 100.42 99.51 98.62 97.62
1976 97.46 99.38 99.68 100.15 100.25 100.12 99.84 99.03 98.05
1977 97.09 99.98 99.63 99.98 99.65 100.13 100.23 99.50 97.68
1978 94.72 99.01 98.56 98.55 98.56 99.17 99.18 98.38 97.50
1979 95.73 99.66 98.84 98.85 99.35 99.12 99.78 99.03 98.11
1980 96.80 99.50 99.32 99.39 99.58 99.02 99.97 99.35 98.05
1981 96.19 100.25 99.06 99.44 99.45 99.65 99.67 99.67 98.32
1982 96.10 99.74 99.25 99.47 99.42 98.63 99.78 99.64 98.09
1983 96.60 100.51 100.12 100.08 99.97 99.50 100.21 100.07 99.32
1984 96.12 100.59 100.53 99.74 100.04 100.17 100.00 100.57 99.45
1985 96.27 100.89 100.25 99.86 100.22 100.16 99.49 100.35 99.09
1986 96.03 100.02 99.98 99.01 99.58 99.57 99.53 99.33 98.67
1987 96.91 100.40 100.45 99.97 98.95 99.51 99.19 100.10 99.26
1988 96.04 100.26 100.19 100.39 99.02 99.28 99.75 100.36 99.00
1989 95.77 100.59 100.66 100.72 99.37 99.40 100.27 100.08 99.61
1990 95.41 99.79 100.10 99.78 99.00 98.43 99.69 99.13 98.81
1991 95.59 99.77 100.03 100.01 98.81 98.57 99.44 99.54 98.43
1992 95.14 99.86 99.78 99.51 99.30 98.68 99.02 98.88 98.97
1993 95.20 99.39 99.79 99.60 99.49 98.86 98.73 98.99 99.27
1994 95.82 99.88 100.36 100.26 100.24 99.24 99.00 99.78 99.08
1995 95.84 98.92 99.85 99.95 99.67 99.32 98.84 99.66 98.54
1996 95.65 98.94 100.03 99.75 99.76 98.93 98.79 99.47 99.00
1997 95.86 98.75 99.87 99.91 99.42 99.39 98.75 99.38 98.68
1998 95.83 99.19 99.59 99.90 99.76 99.76 99.19 98.90 99.24
1999 95.35 99.19 98.93 99.67 99.68 99.64 98.97 99.49 99.20
2000 95.16 98.72 98.32 98.98 99.28 99.00 98.58 98.63 99.06
2001 95.55 98.19 98.16 98.66 98.87 98.81 98.03 98.41 98.64
2002 95.65 98.00 97.90 98.62 98.84 98.88 98.39 98.41 98.59
2003 96.26 98.34 98.40 98.60 98.75 98.93 98.85 98.97 98.61
2004 96.57 98.50 98.26 98.29 98.65 98.89 98.68 98.47 98.61
2005 95.35 97.92 97.54 97.33 98.02 98.37 97.75 97.92 98.20
2006 94.85 97.88 96.71 96.78 97.18 97.71 97.22 96.72 97.63
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 8. EPUF estimates of the number of workers as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, workers aged 60 or older by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
60–61 62–64 65–69 70–71 72 or older
1960 101.65 102.18 101.18 102.98 96.89
1961 102.91 102.04 101.29 101.23 98.23
1962 101.74 102.65 101.43 101.04 97.32
1963 101.87 102.24 100.43 104.07 95.74
1964 101.12 101.43 99.29 100.63 96.02
1965 100.62 100.01 99.55 100.42 95.24
1966 99.52 100.30 100.71 98.72 95.04
1967 99.88 98.66 98.24 100.84 94.00
1968 100.62 98.43 97.49 98.42 92.88
1969 100.22 98.86 99.84 101.02 97.26
1970 99.80 98.67 96.74 101.37 95.43
1971 101.23 99.21 97.42 97.38 95.09
1972 102.05 98.62 98.98 98.55 95.34
1973 100.42 100.30 98.97 98.73 94.09
1974 98.83 99.69 99.51 99.27 93.36
1975 97.73 100.29 99.14 97.79 94.06
1976 98.35 98.72 100.17 100.66 93.37
1977 98.64 97.99 100.29 99.49 93.33
1978 96.06 96.66 97.66 98.29 93.10
1979 95.60 97.26 97.65 97.23 92.97
1980 98.43 95.63 96.58 96.70 93.50
1981 99.51 95.36 96.25 97.65 92.91
1982 97.18 95.58 95.55 98.34 92.34
1983 97.09 98.14 96.74 94.42 92.40
1984 97.66 98.30 95.83 95.77 92.49
1985 98.29 97.85 97.78 95.66 90.67
1986 98.25 96.87 96.84 95.18 89.50
1987 97.75 98.27 97.30 95.44 85.45
1988 98.20 98.59 97.07 93.61 86.43
1989 98.52 98.39 97.71 94.30 86.61
1990 97.59 97.59 97.90 94.40 86.23
1991 97.75 97.48 97.95 96.54 86.96
1992 98.07 97.68 98.03 95.93 87.19
1993 97.23 98.94 97.97 94.49 87.75
1994 99.57 99.30 98.69 97.06 87.82
1995 99.35 98.50 98.51 96.72 86.44
1996 97.43 99.54 98.26 99.89 86.86
1997 98.28 98.28 98.42 99.78 86.45
1998 98.49 98.88 97.28 99.18 87.58
1999 98.38 98.99 98.53 99.84 91.02
2000 98.13 97.87 97.99 97.13 90.45
2001 98.02 97.87 96.78 97.77 91.73
2002 97.32 97.53 97.45 98.49 91.83
2003 97.95 97.78 97.94 97.58 92.65
2004 99.08 96.98 97.08 97.15 93.27
2005 98.61 97.49 95.98 96.98 92.05
2006 97.78 97.24 95.92 94.83 91.53
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 9. Effects of EPUF data cleaning and disclosure prevention measures: Estimated number of workers aged 72 or older as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, 1960–2006
Year Underlying EPUF sample After removing records showing dubious age at earnings Final EPUF (after zeroing out earnings for ages 86 or older)
1960 102.42 98.51 96.89
1961 104.00 100.11 98.23
1962 102.99 99.20 97.32
1963 101.47 97.74 95.74
1964 101.67 98.00 96.02
1965 101.00 97.24 95.24
1966 100.93 97.19 95.04
1967 99.52 95.94 94.00
1968 98.60 94.94 92.88
1969 103.20 99.41 97.26
1970 101.42 97.68 95.43
1971 100.87 97.18 95.09
1972 101.54 97.74 95.34
1973 100.36 96.58 94.09
1974 99.98 96.02 93.36
1975 100.35 96.66 94.06
1976 99.88 96.18 93.37
1977 99.94 96.19 93.33
1978 99.48 96.08 93.10
1979 99.11 95.88 92.97
1980 99.38 96.33 93.50
1981 98.60 95.58 92.91
1982 98.47 95.42 92.34
1983 98.90 95.69 92.40
1984 98.99 95.55 92.49
1985 97.17 93.80 90.67
1986 96.10 92.66 89.50
1987 91.59 88.28 85.45
1988 92.62 89.01 86.43
1989 92.84 89.36 86.61
1990 92.41 88.71 86.23
1991 93.29 89.53 86.96
1992 93.55 89.77 87.19
1993 95.27 90.77 87.75
1994 95.79 91.00 87.82
1995 94.87 89.65 86.44
1996 95.36 89.98 86.86
1997 95.17 89.74 86.45
1998 96.37 90.88 87.58
1999 99.69 94.48 91.02
2000 98.80 94.06 90.45
2001 99.84 95.36 91.73
2002 99.21 95.24 91.83
2003 99.96 96.46 92.65
2004 100.58 97.37 93.27
2005 98.68 95.92 92.05
2006 97.98 95.61 91.53
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 10. Comparison of estimates of number of workers aged 72 or older: EPUF, CWHS, and Supplement, 1980–2006
Year EPUF as a percentage of CWHS CWHS as a percentage of Supplement
1980 100.50 98.91
1981 100.60 98.04
1982 100.60 97.87
1983 101.10 97.79
1984 100.90 98.11
1985 99.30 97.90
1986 98.90 97.17
1987 98.20 93.24
1988 99.10 93.43
1989 98.90 93.86
1990 99.30 93.05
1991 99.80 93.51
1992 99.50 94.06
1993 100.30 95.01
1994 100.20 95.59
1995 99.80 95.04
1996 100.00 95.36
1997 99.50 95.62
1998 100.40 95.98
1999 100.30 99.42
2000 100.00 98.84
2001 101.30 98.58
2002 100.70 98.52
2003 101.10 98.86
2004 101.90 98.70
2005 100.30 98.44
2006 99.80 97.96
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, various editions; and author's calculations using 2008 CWHS active file and EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 11. EPUF estimates of the number of male workers as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, workers younger than 60 by age group, 1951–2006
Year Age group
Under 20 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59
1951 97.71 100.23 99.01 98.47 96.73 99.29 98.77 98.50 103.17
1952 95.89 101.02 99.79 97.72 97.24 99.38 98.58 97.37 104.39
1953 95.81 100.52 99.87 98.43 96.52 98.78 98.07 98.79 101.21
1954 95.62 101.62 100.42 98.49 97.35 97.89 98.43 99.09 100.49
1955 96.05 100.57 100.09 98.56 98.03 97.44 98.41 99.37 99.00
1956 96.42 99.43 99.99 98.95 98.58 96.84 99.31 99.20 99.90
1957 97.04 99.54 100.57 99.34 98.03 97.62 99.80 98.17 99.93
1958 97.91 99.86 100.70 99.62 98.78 97.01 99.48 99.08 100.09
1959 98.05 99.04 100.23 99.39 98.01 97.30 97.96 98.05 99.99
1960 98.30 99.24 100.51 99.62 98.16 98.01 97.77 98.95 100.28
1961 98.03 99.53 100.15 99.47 98.17 98.44 97.49 100.05 99.21
1962 98.12 99.20 99.94 100.00 99.22 98.18 97.45 100.11 99.40
1963 97.66 99.56 99.67 100.44 99.44 98.66 97.01 99.79 99.58
1964 98.40 99.45 99.40 101.10 100.29 98.80 97.50 98.76 99.51
1965 97.61 99.16 99.17 100.32 99.96 98.61 98.00 97.98 99.38
1966 97.23 98.75 99.85 99.77 100.40 98.67 98.79 97.35 100.72
1967 96.42 98.80 98.60 99.31 100.52 98.71 97.89 97.15 100.07
1968 96.71 99.10 98.78 99.68 100.72 99.51 98.92 96.74 101.05
1969 95.82 99.44 99.27 98.91 101.13 100.44 99.02 98.01 99.70
1970 95.94 99.09 98.91 98.90 100.28 100.08 98.51 98.14 98.53
1971 95.13 99.06 99.00 99.96 99.75 100.14 98.69 98.68 97.90
1972 96.41 98.73 98.88 99.04 99.14 100.40 99.29 98.06 98.02
1973 95.96 99.02 98.83 99.13 99.08 100.35 99.20 98.74 96.61
1974 96.37 98.99 99.14 99.58 98.41 100.78 100.03 98.66 97.31
1975 96.65 99.29 99.58 99.98 99.33 100.33 100.12 98.73 97.76
1976 97.37 98.78 99.72 99.62 100.13 100.13 100.49 99.11 98.69
1977 97.06 99.86 99.46 99.54 99.56 99.41 101.20 99.87 98.33
1978 94.05 98.97 98.21 98.01 98.26 98.15 99.85 98.81 98.10
1979 95.20 99.75 98.61 98.82 98.91 98.24 100.48 99.56 98.40
1980 96.32 99.47 98.68 99.54 99.10 98.54 99.92 100.01 98.50
1981 95.51 100.67 98.77 99.49 98.93 99.71 99.39 100.39 98.95
1982 95.47 100.29 99.14 99.18 98.92 98.86 99.04 100.62 98.34
1983 96.81 100.41 100.40 99.89 99.62 99.34 99.68 101.17 99.51
1984 96.84 100.88 100.70 99.53 99.88 99.90 99.23 101.50 100.17
1985 96.99 101.40 100.66 99.46 100.14 99.91 99.20 100.58 99.84
1986 96.69 100.55 100.54 98.73 99.52 98.85 99.73 99.25 99.66
1987 96.62 101.09 100.90 99.81 99.21 98.96 99.52 99.53 100.84
1988 95.64 100.88 100.27 100.57 99.23 98.94 99.62 99.73 100.09
1989 95.04 101.23 101.00 100.89 99.47 99.33 99.62 99.25 100.42
1990 95.17 100.46 100.19 99.97 98.73 98.57 98.92 98.55 98.80
1991 95.22 100.45 99.85 100.35 98.30 98.79 98.58 99.26 97.99
1992 94.77 100.36 100.00 99.93 99.06 98.73 98.21 98.98 98.27
1993 94.21 99.70 100.16 99.56 99.64 98.63 98.19 98.65 98.49
1994 94.75 99.96 100.88 100.48 100.46 98.88 98.87 99.02 98.12
1995 94.61 98.85 100.26 100.01 99.99 98.57 98.74 98.92 97.97
1996 95.62 99.55 100.84 99.78 100.33 98.52 98.93 98.85 98.96
1997 95.25 99.19 100.63 99.95 100.19 99.04 98.79 98.82 98.72
1998 95.30 99.86 100.27 100.29 99.92 99.95 99.02 98.54 99.13
1999 94.74 99.44 99.26 99.49 99.71 99.93 98.85 99.35 98.91
2000 94.78 98.57 98.63 98.89 99.30 99.39 98.14 98.79 98.87
2001 95.20 98.24 98.14 98.69 98.82 99.08 97.43 98.55 98.36
2002 95.02 97.88 98.16 98.77 98.82 99.19 97.87 98.24 98.29
2003 95.17 98.23 98.55 98.79 98.39 99.03 99.14 98.64 98.33
2004 96.13 98.25 98.38 98.61 98.36 98.93 98.91 98.04 98.66
2005 95.29 98.04 97.48 97.71 97.96 98.63 98.15 97.36 98.38
2006 94.10 97.92 96.77 96.73 97.53 97.61 97.62 96.13 97.76
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 12. EPUF estimates of the number of male workers as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, workers aged 60 or older by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
60–61 62–64 65–69 70–71 72 or older
1960 101.45 100.49 100.49 104.10 94.99
1961 100.96 101.26 100.35 100.98 96.33
1962 100.91 101.50 100.78 99.97 95.54
1963 100.80 101.39 100.24 102.43 94.88
1964 100.02 102.19 100.28 98.04 96.13
1965 98.73 100.13 99.93 101.50 94.44
1966 98.23 100.60 101.15 97.34 93.37
1967 98.34 97.50 99.90 100.17 92.75
1968 99.15 97.45 98.30 98.89 90.13
1969 100.14 97.50 100.18 104.95 95.00
1970 100.45 97.55 97.14 102.80 94.53
1971 101.26 98.57 97.63 98.75 95.88
1972 101.12 98.82 98.07 98.99 96.16
1973 99.57 100.13 98.26 99.08 94.29
1974 96.82 99.39 99.83 97.43 94.87
1975 95.87 99.54 98.75 98.25 95.12
1976 97.44 97.27 99.27 101.03 93.99
1977 98.26 96.48 99.51 99.01 94.88
1978 96.45 94.87 97.28 97.59 93.18
1979 96.60 96.52 97.28 95.78 93.47
1980 99.42 95.81 95.02 95.89 93.67
1981 99.80 96.33 94.21 98.79 92.61
1982 97.56 95.86 94.64 99.86 92.08
1983 97.20 98.20 96.64 95.47 92.98
1984 96.88 97.78 95.75 94.08 93.24
1985 97.30 98.14 97.43 94.98 92.14
1986 98.52 96.55 97.19 92.89 89.67
1987 97.69 97.36 96.48 94.98 86.50
1988 98.44 98.26 96.24 95.30 87.11
1989 99.53 98.05 96.92 92.89 87.78
1990 98.57 98.32 98.24 94.75 87.46
1991 99.51 97.62 98.45 97.98 87.78
1992 99.68 98.61 98.03 96.65 87.10
1993 97.90 100.18 98.04 95.29 87.83
1994 99.67 101.54 99.32 97.21 87.05
1995 98.49 99.01 99.80 97.95 86.11
1996 95.93 99.73 99.54 103.55 86.96
1997 97.39 97.40 99.96 101.32 86.88
1998 97.66 97.97 98.05 99.86 88.71
1999 97.55 97.08 100.01 101.61 91.83
2000 97.43 96.55 98.42 97.42 91.13
2001 98.22 96.33 96.54 99.58 92.99
2002 97.29 96.77 96.46 101.95 92.63
2003 97.47 97.85 96.51 97.12 94.00
2004 97.84 97.58 95.85 97.72 94.15
2005 98.33 97.72 95.32 97.10 92.89
2006 98.29 96.73 95.32 93.71 92.42
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 13. EPUF estimates of the number of female workers as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, workers younger than age 60 by age group, 1951–2006
Year Age group
Under 20 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59
1951 100.03 99.69 96.84 96.49 97.83 97.31 97.15 100.66 108.17
1952 100.86 101.03 96.95 96.33 97.57 97.97 99.40 98.99 109.11
1953 101.91 100.20 97.36 96.24 94.94 97.62 98.25 97.64 107.24
1954 101.84 99.05 97.84 97.34 94.90 99.19 97.55 97.23 105.14
1955 100.72 99.83 97.75 97.09 95.72 99.63 96.79 99.19 101.77
1956 100.84 100.14 98.96 97.15 96.39 98.87 98.18 98.59 104.02
1957 99.73 100.43 98.96 97.24 96.91 97.76 98.05 99.91 102.66
1958 99.58 100.80 100.15 97.97 97.31 97.27 98.34 100.03 102.76
1959 98.96 100.53 99.96 98.24 97.69 95.43 98.74 98.45 102.64
1960 99.70 99.79 101.45 98.88 97.94 95.75 98.73 98.61 103.55
1961 100.06 99.72 100.64 99.90 97.45 95.82 98.23 98.89 102.18
1962 100.17 99.71 100.61 100.74 97.30 96.91 98.14 98.48 102.11
1963 99.44 99.87 101.04 100.63 98.10 96.87 97.14 98.55 101.61
1964 99.13 100.93 100.42 98.78 98.81 97.18 95.95 100.50 102.03
1965 99.22 101.05 99.91 100.56 98.81 96.88 96.33 99.98 101.46
1966 99.47 100.26 100.89 100.86 100.05 98.17 95.98 99.85 101.96
1967 98.94 99.69 98.65 100.07 99.33 98.24 96.05 99.12 101.19
1968 98.43 100.24 100.38 100.82 100.37 99.10 97.31 97.96 102.53
1969 98.23 100.46 100.67 101.83 100.24 98.59 98.50 96.62 103.67
1970 98.35 99.80 100.08 100.31 100.84 98.65 97.86 96.34 101.72
1971 98.32 99.68 99.23 100.79 100.11 99.58 98.27 95.59 100.85
1972 98.41 99.87 99.32 98.72 100.45 99.14 98.55 96.58 99.65
1973 97.79 100.50 99.96 99.54 100.96 99.71 99.24 97.37 98.84
1974 98.15 100.17 99.78 100.06 101.22 99.68 98.38 98.68 96.65
1975 98.17 99.96 99.98 100.62 100.26 100.38 98.50 98.36 97.30
1976 97.54 100.06 99.56 100.90 100.37 99.95 98.79 98.82 96.97
1977 97.11 100.08 99.80 100.56 99.71 101.08 98.71 98.87 96.59
1978 95.51 99.02 98.95 99.28 98.91 100.53 98.10 97.67 96.51
1979 96.33 99.52 99.06 98.83 99.91 100.27 98.66 98.18 97.62
1980 97.33 99.52 100.07 99.12 100.15 99.60 99.90 98.32 97.32
1981 96.94 99.75 99.37 99.34 100.07 99.49 99.96 98.55 97.36
1982 96.78 99.06 99.32 99.78 100.01 98.26 100.64 98.21 97.66
1983 96.37 100.59 99.71 100.22 100.40 99.63 100.83 98.49 98.96
1984 95.29 100.23 100.29 99.92 100.17 100.45 100.92 99.22 98.37
1985 95.49 100.28 99.71 100.28 100.26 100.40 99.80 99.91 98.01
1986 95.30 99.40 99.28 99.30 99.57 100.38 99.25 99.30 97.29
1987 97.19 99.62 99.90 100.12 98.58 100.10 98.74 100.72 97.11
1988 96.48 99.56 100.07 100.11 98.68 99.64 99.85 101.06 97.50
1989 96.54 99.87 100.23 100.49 99.16 99.42 100.97 101.04 98.44
1990 95.66 99.03 99.96 99.52 99.25 98.22 100.53 99.80 98.70
1991 95.97 99.00 100.21 99.56 99.34 98.28 100.39 99.86 98.89
1992 95.54 99.29 99.51 98.98 99.54 98.56 99.88 98.74 99.76
1993 96.26 99.03 99.34 99.60 99.27 99.05 99.29 99.32 100.17
1994 96.97 99.77 99.75 99.95 99.95 99.58 99.09 100.60 100.20
1995 97.14 98.98 99.36 99.86 99.28 100.10 98.89 100.43 99.22
1996 95.70 98.26 99.13 99.68 99.07 99.32 98.55 100.12 99.06
1997 96.49 98.27 99.02 99.84 98.52 99.74 98.64 99.93 98.60
1998 96.34 98.48 98.83 99.43 99.55 99.52 99.30 99.26 99.30
1999 95.95 98.91 98.54 99.88 99.60 99.29 99.03 99.58 99.51
2000 95.56 98.86 97.96 99.06 99.24 98.53 98.99 98.40 99.22
2001 95.89 98.10 98.17 98.61 98.89 98.50 98.60 98.21 98.91
2002 96.27 98.12 97.60 98.42 98.85 98.49 98.91 98.51 98.88
2003 97.33 98.44 98.22 98.37 99.13 98.79 98.50 99.24 98.89
2004 96.96 98.74 98.14 97.90 98.99 98.80 98.42 98.87 98.50
2005 95.40 97.79 97.57 96.89 98.08 98.07 97.29 98.46 97.95
2006 95.58 97.82 96.61 96.81 96.77 97.78 96.76 97.30 97.43
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 14. EPUF estimates of the number of female workers as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, workers aged 60 or older by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
60–61 62–64 65–69 70–71 72 or older
1960 102.08 106.05 102.26 99.68 101.16
1961 107.04 103.77 102.93 100.87 102.36
1962 103.43 105.22 102.49 102.66 100.76
1963 103.98 104.07 100.55 107.05 96.89
1964 103.16 99.86 97.16 105.60 94.77
1965 104.17 99.72 98.68 97.92 96.33
1966 101.88 99.68 99.80 101.12 98.48
1967 102.66 100.85 94.96 101.99 96.13
1968 103.22 100.22 95.88 97.50 98.52
1969 100.33 101.33 99.15 93.27 101.67
1970 98.71 100.62 95.99 98.38 96.93
1971 101.16 100.27 97.04 94.79 93.14
1972 103.55 98.22 100.58 97.70 93.38
1973 101.79 100.52 100.20 98.05 93.54
1974 102.07 100.13 98.90 102.77 90.16
1975 100.65 101.51 99.73 96.98 91.72
1976 99.64 101.05 101.64 100.00 91.97
1977 99.11 100.35 101.50 100.38 90.12
1978 95.36 99.45 98.24 99.56 92.87
1979 93.95 98.31 98.22 99.83 91.91
1980 96.82 95.26 98.99 98.08 93.07
1981 98.99 93.89 99.26 95.78 93.20
1982 96.54 95.07 96.79 95.90 92.80
1983 96.85 97.96 96.61 92.74 91.32
1984 98.68 98.94 95.82 98.21 91.17
1985 99.58 89.45 98.16 96.50 88.15
1986 97.75 97.31 96.11 98.53 89.14
1987 97.76 99.44 98.39 95.90 83.64
1988 97.79 98.85 98.09 90.71 85.02
1989 97.09 98.74 98.70 96.32 84.68
1990 96.27 96.54 97.31 93.72 84.13
1991 95.44 97.23 97.19 94.33 85.52
1992 95.94 96.47 97.93 94.77 87.26
1993 96.24 97.31 97.79 93.01 87.51
1994 99.32 96.33 97.80 97.17 88.85
1995 100.34 97.70 96.73 94.68 86.88
1996 99.30 99.17 96.46 94.81 86.77
1997 99.37 99.28 96.25 97.48 85.75
1998 99.40 99.92 96.08 98.47 85.77
1999 99.37 101.41 96.54 97.26 89.71
2000 98.98 99.41 97.24 96.66 89.35
2001 97.82 99.75 96.93 95.19 89.64
2002 97.31 98.43 98.70 94.07 90.58
2003 98.45 97.66 99.69 98.10 90.57
2004 100.47 96.21 98.72 95.93 91.89
2005 98.89 97.14 96.82 96.71 90.70
2006 97.22 97.78 96.66 96.41 89.96
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B5, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 15. EPUF estimates of median earnings as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, all workers younger than age 60 by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
Under 20 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59
1960 100.68 100.24 99.65 100.81 100.24 100.23 98.35 99.66 99.69
1961 100.11 99.23 100.45 100.21 100.16 100.48 98.61 99.76 100.61
1962 100.80 100.10 100.80 100.66 100.22 99.92 99.00 99.59 100.00
1963 100.72 100.25 99.82 100.57 100.29 100.45 99.79 99.21 100.38
1964 99.45 100.42 99.88 101.03 100.47 100.55 100.61 99.07 98.82
1965 101.25 101.01 99.36 100.80 100.66 100.81 101.10 98.86 99.40
1966 96.05 100.42 99.98 100.42 99.67 100.45 101.12 99.13 98.92
1967 98.68 100.30 100.11 100.09 100.31 100.81 100.37 98.64 99.49
1968 100.13 100.66 100.36 99.99 100.28 100.78 100.55 99.83 99.07
1969 100.72 100.33 100.43 100.20 100.34 100.31 100.86 100.41 98.88
1970 100.22 100.13 100.54 100.03 100.46 100.76 100.32 100.67 98.89
1971 98.63 99.96 100.17 100.26 100.35 99.74 100.34 100.54 98.87
1972 99.18 100.25 100.21 100.14 100.48 100.30 100.47 100.27 98.90
1973 99.71 100.32 99.78 99.76 100.45 100.19 99.90 100.26 99.22
1974 100.16 100.26 99.92 100.39 99.34 100.29 99.90 99.51 99.83
1975 99.67 100.58 99.79 100.25 99.71 100.19 100.32 99.39 99.05
1976 101.34 100.57 100.56 99.11 100.14 99.60 100.39 100.21 100.00
1977 98.69 100.11 100.47 99.91 100.16 100.25 100.29 100.52 100.02
1978 100.84 100.41 100.29 100.34 99.93 99.49 100.57 100.10 100.31
1979 100.79 100.21 99.61 100.15 98.83 99.20 100.68 99.91 100.41
1980 100.51 100.39 99.75 100.45 99.77 99.65 99.81 99.85 99.83
1981 100.35 100.45 99.72 100.48 99.38 99.92 99.64 99.85 99.56
1982 99.35 100.19 99.59 99.39 99.57 100.04 99.91 100.00 100.66
1983 99.50 99.77 99.50 100.11 99.87 99.45 99.62 100.91 99.54
1984 99.65 100.40 100.19 100.36 100.55 100.18 100.29 101.12 100.50
1985 99.50 100.29 99.77 100.09 100.57 100.47 99.89 100.88 100.79
1986 99.51 99.74 99.96 99.18 100.21 99.18 99.70 99.47 99.33
1987 99.67 100.23 99.55 99.62 100.37 99.90 99.54 99.51 99.62
1988 99.38 99.79 99.85 99.90 100.02 99.94 99.37 99.44 99.55
1989 100.52 99.59 100.20 100.28 101.00 100.65 100.22 100.38 100.48
1990 100.05 99.26 99.90 100.21 100.80 101.05 100.40 100.30 100.40
1991 99.22 99.53 99.80 100.11 100.49 101.01 100.16 100.20 99.86
1992 100.05 99.87 100.42 100.36 100.61 100.99 100.62 100.38 99.35
1993 99.65 100.62 100.22 100.31 100.94 101.08 100.52 100.58 99.73
1994 99.55 101.17 100.01 100.13 100.08 100.30 99.78 99.28 99.60
1995 100.29 100.55 100.40 99.97 100.29 99.04 99.50 99.47 100.15
1996 99.51 100.89 100.28 100.06 100.41 99.31 100.47 99.26 100.15
1997 99.54 100.43 100.25 100.31 100.18 99.64 99.94 99.35 100.01
1998 98.87 99.74 100.47 100.16 100.09 100.15 99.77 99.83 99.95
1999 99.93 99.88 100.33 100.32 100.64 100.24 99.60 99.88 99.92
2000 100.05 99.89 99.89 99.82 100.89 100.54 99.28 100.37 99.34
2001 99.63 99.44 100.18 99.76 100.33 100.57 99.12 100.10 99.98
2002 99.74 100.19 100.14 100.05 100.21 100.34 99.98 99.50 99.84
2003 100.96 100.76 100.00 99.93 100.26 100.18 100.18 99.62 99.92
2004 100.70 99.68 100.00 99.75 100.17 100.64 100.38 99.41 100.07
2005 99.56 99.57 99.90 100.12 99.64 100.58 100.82 99.19 99.96
2006 99.26 99.51 100.46 100.45 99.97 99.85 100.68 99.50 100.23
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B6, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 16. EPUF estimates of median earnings as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, all workers aged 60 or older by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
60–61 62–64 65–69 70–71 72 or older
1960 101.82 99.73 103.77 102.74 95.85
1961 102.01 98.35 103.15 102.49 96.85
1962 100.89 100.24 101.38 103.68 94.86
1963 98.90 100.97 98.03 101.22 95.49
1964 99.30 100.36 96.23 101.40 95.54
1965 100.47 99.04 103.01 102.13 97.11
1966 99.45 99.84 102.34 100.00 97.93
1967 98.56 99.90 102.07 100.11 102.78
1968 99.26 99.72 100.17 99.77 99.23
1969 98.93 99.15 96.66 100.64 100.11
1970 99.97 99.11 99.09 101.46 98.51
1971 101.49 97.24 98.77 102.61 97.45
1972 98.80 97.76 99.81 99.33 98.32
1973 99.59 98.39 97.99 100.67 96.92
1974 98.45 98.83 99.42 103.05 98.13
1975 98.32 99.38 99.44 99.76 100.90
1976 99.85 96.93 100.09 103.66 99.53
1977 100.91 97.34 100.41 102.86 100.31
1978 100.04 98.17 99.74 99.54 96.42
1979 99.35 99.50 98.56 98.69 99.64
1980 99.84 100.01 99.50 100.35 99.20
1981 99.57 100.20 97.90 99.44 97.66
1982 98.39 102.22 98.27 99.97 96.60
1983 98.37 99.92 97.12 97.68 99.26
1984 100.51 99.09 98.82 97.16 97.76
1985 100.48 97.42 99.51 97.78 97.55
1986 99.37 99.50 99.22 94.45 95.41
1987 98.86 99.14 99.18 97.91 93.10
1988 98.41 98.99 99.58 100.25 90.95
1989 99.85 99.35 98.13 104.94 93.72
1990 99.62 95.90 97.61 102.03 92.87
1991 99.66 98.84 97.74 99.65 96.33
1992 101.62 97.54 97.04 97.07 97.08
1993 100.73 99.10 96.23 98.68 93.69
1994 98.93 97.22 99.47 100.15 89.90
1995 97.43 98.74 98.66 100.53 93.74
1996 98.83 97.93 98.56 96.51 93.15
1997 99.04 99.59 99.18 96.86 92.85
1998 100.25 98.38 100.71 98.67 96.28
1999 100.82 98.44 99.21 102.17 97.42
2000 99.69 99.48 100.03 98.41 99.70
2001 100.37 98.93 98.95 96.68 100.51
2002 100.82 99.71 99.83 99.06 101.51
2003 100.06 100.85 97.95 96.42 101.84
2004 99.09 101.87 99.46 98.77 99.12
2005 98.15 101.22 99.20 100.13 99.51
2006 99.65 100.10 98.95 102.12 97.09
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B6, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 17. EPUF estimates of median earnings as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, male workers younger than age 60 by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
Under 20 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59
1960 100.57 100.76 100.28 99.36 92.75 92.90 96.89 100.49 99.45
1961 99.54 100.56 100.68 97.50 90.57 90.24 92.79 99.11 99.95
1962 99.77 101.23 101.05 93.13 86.02 84.70 88.15 94.04 99.23
1963 100.05 100.24 100.83 89.49 83.04 81.67 84.79 90.28 95.66
1964 98.66 100.42 100.59 84.99 79.33 77.76 79.09 85.24 90.34
1965 98.75 100.98 96.83 79.27 74.06 73.63 75.37 81.07 86.01
1966 96.68 100.74 100.51 100.80 95.64 93.96 95.64 100.23 100.18
1967 99.75 100.77 100.54 98.00 92.27 90.80 91.64 97.14 100.32
1968 100.62 100.67 100.48 100.30 100.58 98.67 99.67 99.81 99.67
1969 100.96 100.44 100.56 99.92 94.69 92.50 93.17 98.09 99.47
1970 99.11 100.59 101.10 95.93 91.46 89.80 89.11 93.19 99.14
1971 98.26 100.70 100.15 92.17 88.85 84.50 85.31 88.66 95.51
1972 99.19 100.51 100.54 97.19 91.56 89.82 90.36 93.07 99.00
1973 99.90 100.42 100.40 100.25 100.65 97.91 98.09 99.65 99.30
1974 100.41 100.16 100.02 100.36 100.57 100.46 100.62 99.56 99.63
1975 100.86 100.11 100.17 100.40 100.27 100.19 100.18 99.72 99.01
1976 101.45 100.66 100.94 100.08 100.78 100.23 100.33 100.03 99.55
1977 99.75 100.29 100.59 100.41 100.82 100.30 100.74 99.46 98.87
1978 100.29 100.62 100.61 100.57 100.20 100.56 100.40 100.08 99.02
1979 101.10 99.95 99.86 100.25 100.34 100.51 100.16 100.62 99.41
1980 100.76 100.12 100.24 100.31 100.84 100.59 99.89 100.79 98.91
1981 100.29 100.54 99.82 100.51 99.99 100.09 99.98 100.01 99.96
1982 99.20 100.62 99.95 99.61 100.45 100.77 100.52 100.15 99.58
1983 97.95 99.87 99.68 99.33 100.25 100.21 100.65 100.32 99.86
1984 98.56 100.51 99.88 100.25 101.15 101.45 101.66 101.96 100.65
1985 100.02 100.84 99.96 100.03 101.32 101.68 101.51 100.73 101.51
1986 100.46 100.20 99.83 99.30 100.45 100.09 100.30 100.14 99.50
1987 99.76 100.63 99.53 99.40 100.27 100.42 99.71 100.45 98.95
1988 99.81 100.13 99.58 100.15 100.08 100.60 99.92 100.57 98.72
1989 100.17 100.11 100.32 100.67 100.97 101.24 101.76 101.63 100.30
1990 98.60 99.88 100.38 100.46 101.31 101.29 102.05 101.57 100.22
1991 98.51 100.81 100.71 99.87 100.49 101.53 101.51 101.26 101.12
1992 99.20 99.79 100.63 100.32 100.63 101.24 102.08 100.98 100.85
1993 99.07 100.38 101.21 100.29 100.92 101.76 101.79 101.28 101.88
1994 100.56 101.79 100.29 100.09 99.54 100.50 100.11 100.63 100.50
1995 99.48 100.60 100.78 100.22 100.00 99.92 100.05 100.49 100.89
1996 99.64 100.21 100.33 100.62 99.91 99.20 101.02 99.90 101.03
1997 101.01 100.84 99.69 100.83 99.91 99.51 100.17 100.97 100.43
1998 98.82 99.85 100.31 100.59 99.83 99.75 100.22 101.18 100.34
1999 99.12 99.90 99.98 100.69 100.41 99.69 99.89 100.69 100.14
2000 100.19 99.66 99.68 100.12 101.52 99.86 99.56 100.34 99.13
2001 99.62 99.07 100.27 99.83 101.04 100.07 99.53 100.23 100.08
2002 99.86 99.70 100.37 99.47 100.63 100.43 99.50 99.89 99.77
2003 100.99 100.60 100.00 99.80 100.51 100.16 99.84 99.87 99.72
2004 100.38 99.89 100.18 99.52 100.24 100.39 99.86 99.43 100.09
2005 100.33 100.43 99.32 100.22 99.66 100.43 100.54 99.57 100.30
2006 99.81 100.07 100.48 100.43 99.88 100.40 100.33 99.85 100.90
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B6, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 18. EPUF estimates of median earnings as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, male workers aged 60 or older by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
60–61 62–64 65–69 70–71 72 or older
1960 100.96 100.54 110.09 99.24 101.87
1961 101.96 98.88 109.96 97.72 101.97
1962 100.12 99.47 105.36 101.01 102.39
1963 98.03 99.32 98.90 100.52 100.71
1964 98.95 100.30 94.89 100.84 98.76
1965 96.13 99.27 99.96 96.31 102.02
1966 99.15 99.34 101.91 101.48 97.64
1967 99.13 99.13 101.27 101.34 106.37
1968 99.22 99.63 94.93 100.11 100.89
1969 98.23 100.10 90.08 98.97 100.96
1970 100.75 98.50 96.31 100.03 98.53
1971 101.84 97.83 97.33 100.64 98.75
1972 99.96 99.18 99.64 99.26 99.35
1973 99.77 99.03 99.05 100.92 97.52
1974 99.12 100.46 95.86 101.01 99.68
1975 97.43 99.83 96.10 100.08 101.61
1976 99.01 98.11 96.11 102.67 97.22
1977 101.10 97.58 96.92 101.57 100.73
1978 100.13 99.91 100.15 100.50 96.43
1979 98.46 100.04 98.09 99.00 98.17
1980 98.16 100.47 99.20 99.77 98.57
1981 98.03 98.88 98.10 99.70 96.78
1982 98.61 100.30 99.76 99.58 97.16
1983 99.32 98.26 97.98 98.35 99.28
1984 100.88 98.92 99.24 96.48 98.18
1985 101.64 97.29 99.42 99.04 94.06
1986 101.40 98.93 100.23 96.11 93.16
1987 99.05 98.35 100.67 98.60 91.52
1988 97.13 99.16 99.24 98.17 89.26
1989 99.62 99.77 98.51 104.43 94.24
1990 98.95 99.26 98.33 99.18 91.39
1991 99.09 98.78 99.92 95.33 94.18
1992 99.44 100.25 98.49 99.23 94.63
1993 100.56 99.92 98.76 103.17 91.40
1994 99.31 95.04 101.62 96.36 88.77
1995 98.31 97.49 100.24 101.30 92.76
1996 100.09 96.30 97.62 96.80 90.65
1997 99.43 101.45 99.50 94.35 92.64
1998 100.56 97.22 100.81 99.88 96.06
1999 102.21 101.43 98.22 104.88 97.74
2000 101.48 99.99 101.46 96.00 99.47
2001 99.68 102.04 97.63 95.16 98.38
2002 99.11 101.59 99.44 99.73 99.10
2003 99.29 99.98 98.63 97.29 101.29
2004 98.44 99.31 99.70 100.92 100.01
2005 97.59 98.64 98.92 100.52 99.86
2006 99.06 98.67 99.77 100.68 96.16
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B6, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 19. EPUF estimates of median earnings as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, female workers younger than age 60 by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
Under 20 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59
1960 100.00 98.58 97.66 100.70 99.68 99.84 99.20 99.60 99.30
1961 95.64 96.42 99.38 99.68 99.65 99.49 99.76 99.73 99.65
1962 103.36 98.94 98.41 98.13 100.17 100.08 98.21 100.51 99.07
1963 101.98 100.36 98.92 97.25 99.79 99.15 99.88 98.64 99.27
1964 93.91 99.73 98.51 98.52 99.82 99.46 98.64 98.82 98.54
1965 95.13 99.96 99.55 97.30 100.20 100.84 99.05 99.62 98.69
1966 97.41 100.22 97.73 97.12 97.02 99.26 99.19 100.49 98.38
1967 99.95 99.26 99.27 99.87 97.66 99.64 99.66 99.18 98.67
1968 98.53 100.72 99.89 100.64 98.70 99.11 100.07 100.95 98.42
1969 99.11 100.10 99.38 99.00 98.85 99.50 100.50 100.15 98.99
1970 101.13 99.92 98.57 100.30 99.22 99.63 99.12 100.24 99.58
1971 98.14 98.66 99.90 98.26 99.79 98.13 98.91 100.68 99.59
1972 99.27 99.60 99.45 99.45 99.68 99.59 99.50 99.75 99.41
1973 99.85 99.54 98.62 97.46 99.50 98.23 99.08 99.40 98.44
1974 99.72 100.22 99.87 99.07 98.68 98.02 99.22 99.43 99.37
1975 98.04 101.26 99.31 98.16 99.05 99.36 99.18 98.92 98.90
1976 101.21 100.28 100.05 98.63 98.64 100.01 99.89 99.39 98.38
1977 98.23 100.20 100.22 99.74 97.84 99.52 100.22 99.57 99.43
1978 100.86 100.20 100.47 99.98 98.86 98.92 100.33 99.66 99.75
1979 100.17 100.55 99.76 100.19 98.75 98.03 99.24 98.71 100.08
1980 100.48 101.02 99.57 100.35 100.00 98.71 100.81 98.74 99.46
1981 100.11 100.83 99.50 101.09 99.54 99.44 100.43 98.22 99.18
1982 99.62 98.92 99.42 100.00 99.87 99.24 99.72 99.25 98.21
1983 100.88 98.70 99.18 101.12 100.54 99.26 99.13 100.10 97.34
1984 99.97 99.90 99.49 101.18 100.02 99.84 99.59 100.31 99.55
1985 99.46 99.58 99.12 99.93 100.07 100.57 99.31 101.44 99.05
1986 98.48 99.35 99.09 98.67 100.72 99.39 99.67 99.90 99.37
1987 99.73 99.93 98.86 99.30 101.05 99.76 99.45 99.23 99.85
1988 98.83 99.31 99.76 99.21 100.77 99.81 99.25 98.27 99.76
1989 100.87 98.33 99.66 99.62 101.39 99.68 99.78 98.07 100.76
1990 101.53 98.25 100.11 99.74 101.06 101.29 99.74 98.25 100.33
1991 99.67 98.28 99.32 99.88 100.37 101.49 99.97 98.14 100.24
1992 100.41 99.75 99.34 99.80 100.18 101.08 99.62 99.11 98.47
1993 100.34 101.06 98.67 99.89 100.32 100.50 99.47 100.14 97.67
1994 97.95 100.56 98.66 100.18 100.03 99.76 99.21 99.76 98.00
1995 101.16 100.58 99.70 99.69 100.19 98.95 99.82 99.42 99.02
1996 99.66 100.80 99.94 99.49 100.57 99.54 100.00 99.39 99.24
1997 98.12 99.99 100.86 99.32 100.15 99.55 99.93 99.39 99.12
1998 98.76 99.63 100.90 99.23 100.36 99.94 99.54 99.70 99.89
1999 100.40 99.35 100.52 100.57 100.57 100.20 99.74 99.88 100.63
2000 99.77 99.51 99.79 100.19 100.33 100.06 99.87 100.52 100.03
2001 99.47 100.28 100.08 100.23 100.36 100.70 99.64 100.22 99.86
2002 99.66 100.23 99.78 100.19 99.78 99.94 100.47 99.22 99.97
2003 100.68 100.37 100.03 100.27 99.75 100.30 100.25 99.59 100.51
2004 101.03 99.11 99.73 100.43 99.65 100.17 100.53 100.18 100.45
2005 98.99 98.62 100.62 100.45 99.94 100.42 100.93 99.66 100.31
2006 98.56 99.03 100.39 101.09 99.95 99.42 101.17 99.98 100.14
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B6, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.
Table equivalent for Chart 20. EPUF estimates of median earnings as a percentage of the Supplement estimate, female workers aged 60 or older by age group, 1960–2006
Year Age group
60–61 62–64 65–69 70–71 72 or older
1960 103.94 99.25 101.09 99.11 92.66
1961 100.56 99.22 100.59 104.06 97.94
1962 101.10 100.04 99.78 103.48 96.25
1963 100.43 104.38 100.25 97.77 95.92
1964 100.73 102.84 100.17 95.24 97.25
1965 98.83 98.65 99.34 104.84 98.52
1966 99.57 99.94 101.75 102.19 93.24
1967 99.31 99.53 101.15 97.76 95.21
1968 101.93 97.37 101.78 97.08 95.35
1969 97.82 103.69 100.78 101.41 98.34
1970 96.74 100.31 99.98 105.01 98.32
1971 99.91 98.59 99.41 104.97 93.78
1972 98.60 96.10 99.12 98.55 100.45
1973 98.99 98.37 100.31 103.08 99.57
1974 97.14 100.75 99.36 110.56 95.72
1975 100.85 96.92 102.79 94.88 98.40
1976 101.72 99.21 100.02 101.63 100.45
1977 97.07 99.16 98.05 110.47 99.01
1978 98.08 99.67 100.07 95.08 94.43
1979 98.69 98.77 101.44 98.59 100.93
1980 98.57 98.54 102.36 98.94 96.03
1981 100.54 99.53 99.61 100.31 98.99
1982 99.37 100.87 99.83 100.13 93.38
1983 97.23 100.48 96.40 98.66 99.70
1984 100.07 95.84 100.21 98.26 95.31
1985 99.20 97.12 98.00 97.20 99.47
1986 99.62 100.23 100.00 96.34 96.60
1987 98.40 103.34 97.58 94.77 90.88
1988 95.83 98.90 99.59 97.23 92.41
1989 98.46 97.93 97.54 109.32 91.26
1990 98.74 92.52 96.77 107.03 94.80
1991 97.72 96.77 96.02 100.00 96.91
1992 102.14 95.48 95.88 91.21 98.40
1993 101.21 96.90 94.00 96.00 97.60
1994 98.96 98.70 96.72 105.52 95.24
1995 100.49 98.65 97.03 101.11 93.70
1996 99.82 96.55 97.37 94.37 97.11
1997 97.67 97.34 97.98 97.46 93.88
1998 98.55 99.52 100.62 94.93 98.40
1999 99.85 97.68 98.81 100.77 97.44
2000 99.01 98.72 98.26 102.87 99.34
2001 100.82 95.75 100.50 99.49 102.32
2002 101.11 96.98 101.73 97.90 102.73
2003 101.04 102.11 98.75 96.72 104.09
2004 99.51 103.45 99.81 98.89 98.24
2005 99.00 104.75 101.05 101.55 97.94
2006 98.90 101.19 98.09 103.03 98.51
SOURCES: SSA, Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, Table 4.B6, various editions; and author's calculations using EPUF.
NOTE: 2008 Supplement estimates for 2004–2006 were based on preliminary data.