Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2002

 

Uzbekistan

Exchange rate: U.S.$1.00 equals 1,380 soms.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1956.

Current law: 1994.

Type of program: Dual social insurance and social assistance system.

Local authorities and employers may provide supplementary benefits out of their own budgets.

Note: Program provisions and rates are as of January 1995 unless noted otherwise.

Coverage

Social insurance: All employed persons residing in Uzbekistan.

Social assistance: Needy and certain other categories of resident.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 1% of earnings (including bonuses).

Employer: 32.5% of payroll (including wages and bonuses for part-time and temporary employees).

Government: Subsidies as needed. Total cost of social pensions.

The above contributions also finance benefits for cash sickness, maternity, work injury, and family allowances.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 60 with 25 years of covered employment (men) or age 55 with 20 years of work (women). The qualifying conditions are reduced for hazardous or arduous work, work in ecologically damaged areas, unemployed older workers, teachers with at least 25 years of service, and other categories of worker. Retirement from employment is necessary.

Disability pension: The disability pension is awarded according to three categories of disability: totally disabled, incapable of any work, and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled, incapable of any work, and not requiring constant attendance (Group II); and partially disabled and incapable of usual work (Group III).

The insured must have a minimum of between 1 and 15 years of covered employment, depending on age at the onset of disability.

Survivor pension: The insured completed between 1 and 15 years of work, depending on age at the time of death. The pension is payable to surviving children whether or not they were dependents of the insured and to nonworking dependents (including the spouse; either parent, if disabled and not yet of pensionable age; and grandparents, if no other support is available).

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The pension is paid according to two income-based tiers of eligibility.

First tier (high-waged): Insured persons receive 55% of average earnings a month.

Average earnings: The average wage over any 5-year period.

The minimum pension for high-waged insured persons varies between 50% of the minimum wage (for incomplete service) and 100% of the minimum wage (for full service).

The maximum pension for high-waged insured persons with full service is 5.25 times the minimum wage.

The minimum wage equals 200 soms (September 1994).

Second tier: Insured persons receive 1% of average earnings a month for every year of service; special pensions are awarded to war veterans and to persons in other categories.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to cost-of-living changes.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: For a Group I disability, 55% of average earnings; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women) plus a constant-attendance supplement. For a Group II disability, 55% of average earnings; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women). For a Group III disability, 30% of earnings.

The minimum pension for a Group I or II disability is 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension; for a Group III disability, 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension.

Partial pension: If the insured has insufficient years of covered employment, the monthly benefit is reduced in proportion to the number of years below the required years of coverage.

Social pension: A social pension is awarded for a Group I disability if the disability began in childhood and for disabled children under age 16. The monthly pension equals 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension. The social pension for a Group II disability for adults is 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension a month; for a Group III disability, 30% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension a month.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustment according to cost-of-living changes.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The monthly pension is 30% of earnings for each dependent survivor.

The minimum pension is 100% of minimum wage; 200% for a full orphan or the death of a single mother.

Social pension: A social pension is paid to each orphan under age 16 (or older if disabled since childhood). The monthly pension is 50% of the minimum pension.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustment according to cost-of-living changes.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination.

Regional departments of social protection administer the program.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First and current law: 1955, with 1984, 1990, and 1992 amendments.

Type of program: Dual social insurance (sickness and maternity benefits) and universal (medical care) system.

Coverage

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Persons in covered employment; persons on leave from employment while pursuing secondary, technical, or advanced education; and registered unemployed persons.

Medical benefits: All residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Government

Cash benefits: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical care: Total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash and medical benefits: Sickness benefits according to length of service. There is no minimum qualifying period for medical care and maternity benefits.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: With less than 5 years of uninterrupted employment, 60% of the last month's wage; 80% with between 5 and 8 years; 100% with over 8 years (or if the insured has three or more children).

Maternity benefit: 100% of wages. The benefit is paid monthly for 70 days before and 56 days after childbirth (the latter may be extended to 70 calendar days in cases of a difficult birth or multiple births). Working mothers are entitled to 3 years of unpaid leave. Mothers caring for children under age 2 are entitled to paid leave at the rate of 20% of the minimum wage a month.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly by government health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, prostheses, medication, and other medical care services.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Same as for the head of the household.

Administrative Organization

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Ministry of Social Protection provides general supervision. Cash benefits are provided directly by the enterprises and by local departments of social protection.

Medical care: Ministry of Public Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. Ministry of Public Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services through government clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First and current laws: 1955 (short-term benefits) and 1991 (pensions).

Type of program: Dual social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical care) system.

Local authorities and employers can provide supplementary pension benefits out of their own budgets.

Coverage

Cash benefits: Employed persons.

Medical care: All residents.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Government: See Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above; and the cost of medical care.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

100% of earnings. Benefit is payable from the first day of incapacity until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: See permanent disability benefits under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients by governmental health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, transportation, and the full cost of appliances and medicines.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: See survivor benefits under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Enterprises and employers pay benefits to their own employees.

Pensions: Ministry of Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination. Regional departments of social protection administer the program.

Medical care: Ministry of Health and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and coordination. Ministry of Health and local health departments administer the provision of medical services through clinics, hospitals, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First and current law: 1991.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Working-age citizens.

Source of Funds

Employee: None.

Employer: 3% of payroll.

Government: Subsidies as needed from central and local governments.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefit: Registered at an employment office, able and willing to work, and receiving no income from employment. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the insured is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating the conditions for a job placement or vocational training, or filing fraudulent claims.

Unemployment Benefits

Benefit is payable monthly at 50% of previous average earnings for 26 weeks to insured persons with at least 12 weeks of work in the last 12 months.

The minimum benefit is 100% of the minimum wage (200 soms, September 1994).

The maximum benefit is based on average earnings that do not exceed the national average wage.

Long-term unemployed: Reentrants to the workforce with skills who have less than 12 weeks of employment in the last 12 months but who have at least 1 year of total employment receive 100% of the minimum wage for the first 13 weeks and 75% of the minimum wage for the following 13 weeks; reentrants to the workforce without skills receive 75% of the minimum wage (50% if no dependents) for 13 weeks.

First-time job seekers: 75% of the minimum wage (50% if no dependents) for 13 weeks.

Dependent supplement: 10% of the unemployment benefit is payable monthly to each dependent under age 16.

Early retirement pension: For unemployed persons within 2 years of reaching pensionable age. See old-age benefits under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Administrative Organization

Employment Service and local counterparts administer the program.

Family Allowances

Information is not available.