Trends in the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Disability Programs

 

Chart Descriptions for Changes in Incentives Influencing Program Size section

Table equivalent for Chart 52. Changes in prices and wages, 1970–2003
Year Wage index Price index (CPI-W)
1970 100.00 100.00
1971 105.02 103.27
1972 115.32 106.78
1973 122.53 116.08
1974 129.82 130.40
1975 139.52 139.45
1976 149.15 146.23
1977 158.08 156.03
1978 170.64 170.10
1979 185.56 192.71
1980 202.28 216.83
1981 222.64 236.18
1982 234.90 245.23
1983 246.34 254.52
1984 260.82 264.57
1985 271.93 274.62
1986 280.01 277.64
1987 297.86 289.95
1988 312.53 302.76
1989 324.91 316.83
1990 339.92 336.18
1991 352.58 346.48
1992 370.75 356.53
1993 373.94 366.33
1994 383.97 376.13
1995 399.36 385.68
1996 418.90 398.49
1997 443.34 405.28
1998 466.54 411.81
1999 492.54 422.86
2000 519.78 437.19
2001 532.18 443.97
2002 537.52 454.52
2003 550.66 463.07
SOURCES: Office of the Chief Actuary, Automatic Increases, Average Wage Index Series, available at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OACT/COLA/AWIgrowth.html; Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI-W, available at http://www.bls.gov/cpi/.
NOTES: 1970 = 100 for both series.
CPI-W = consumer price index for urban wage earners and clerical workers.
Table equivalent for Chart 53. Annual percentage change in prices and wages, 1970–2003
Year Wage index Price index (CPI-W)
1970 4.96 5.57
1971 5.02 3.27
1972 9.80 3.41
1973 6.26 8.71
1974 5.94 12.34
1975 7.47 6.94
1976 6.90 4.86
1977 5.99 6.70
1978 7.94 9.02
1979 8.75 13.29
1980 9.01 12.52
1981 10.07 8.92
1982 5.51 3.83
1983 4.87 3.79
1984 5.88 3.95
1985 4.26 3.80
1986 2.97 1.10
1987 6.38 4.43
1988 4.93 4.42
1989 3.96 4.65
1990 4.62 6.11
1991 3.73 3.06
1992 5.15 2.90
1993 0.86 2.75
1994 2.68 2.67
1995 4.01 2.54
1996 4.89 3.32
1997 5.84 1.70
1998 5.23 1.61
1999 5.57 2.68
2000 5.53 3.39
2001 2.39 1.55
2002 1.00 2.38
2003 2.44 1.88
SOURCES: Office of the Chief Actuary, Automatic Increases, Average Wage Index Series, available at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OACT/COLA/AWIgrowth.html; Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI-W, available at http://www.bls.gov/cpi/.
NOTE: CPI-W = consumer price index for urban wage earners and clerical workers.
Table equivalent for Chart 54. Median and quartile replacement rates for newly entitled disabled workers, 1970–2000
Year Lowest quartile Median Highest quartile
1970 35 48 66
1971 37 51 70
1972 39 51 72
1973 42 59 81
1974 44 63 86
1975 45 66 90
1976 46 66 91
1977 47 67 93
1978 48 68 95
1979 49 68 95
1980 51 66 89
1981 51 66 85
1982 48 63 83
1983 46 60 78
1984 46 60 82
1985 46 60 81
1986 45 59 80
1987 46 59 79
1988 45 59 81
1989 46 58 81
1990 47 62 84
1991 47 62 83
1992 46 60 83
1993 46 60 82
1994 46 59 81
1995 46 59 81
1996 46 60 81
1997 46 58 80
1998 45 59 81
1999 45 57 80
2000 46 57 80
SOURCE: Unpublished data compiled by the authors using the 1% Continuous Work History Sample.
NOTE: Replacement rates are based on average indexed monthly earnings.
Table equivalent for Chart 55. Percentage of newly entitled disabled workers with high replacement rates, 1970–2000
Year Percent
1970 12.50
1971 15.80
1972 18.00
1973 26.30
1974 30.50
1975 34.00
1976 35.00
1977 37.50
1978 39.00
1979 37.60
1980 32.80
1981 29.20
1982 28.10
1983 23.70
1984 26.40
1985 25.90
1986 24.50
1987 24.40
1988 25.60
1989 25.70
1990 28.20
1991 28.10
1992 27.70
1993 27.10
1994 26.10
1995 25.50
1996 26.10
1997 25.20
1998 26.20
1999 25.00
2000 25.40
SOURCE: Unpublished data compiled by the authors using the 1% Continuous Work History Sample.
NOTE: Replacement rates are based on average indexed monthly earnings. High replacement rates are those that exceed 80 percent of predisability earnings.
Table equivalent for Chart 56. Incidence of SSI applications and new adult entrants (aged 18–64) and the maximum monthly federal SSI payment amount for individuals and couples, 1980–2003
Year Benefits (2003 dollars) Rates (number per thousand)
Individual Couple Application New entrant
1980 5.08 7.62 7.17 2.06
1981 5.19 7.78 4.49 1.60
1982 5.37 8.05 4.98 1.39
1983 5.54 8.30 5.34 1.79
1984 5.50 8.26 5.56 2.18
1985 5.48 8.23 6.60 2.18
1986 5.60 8.41 7.03 2.53
1987 5.43 8.14 5.92 2.46
1988 5.41 8.14 5.75 2.26
1989 5.38 8.08 6.00 2.41
1990 5.32 7.98 6.71 2.82
1991 5.44 8.15 7.68 3.21
1992 5.48 8.22 8.53 4.01
1993 5.49 8.24 9.12 3.89
1994 5.49 8.24 8.86 3.52
1995 5.50 8.25 7.90 3.40
1996 5.46 8.19 7.30 3.11
1997 5.53 8.30 6.18 2.67
1998 5.55 8.33 6.32 2.81
1999 5.48 8.22 6.36 2.79
2000 5.43 8.15 6.42 2.69
2001 5.54 8.30 6.63 2.77
2002 5.55 8.32 7.20 2.90
2003 5.52 8.29 7.40 2.90
SOURCES: SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2003, Table 1; 2004 Annual Report of the Supplemental Security Income Program, Tables IV.A1, IV.B1, and IV.B2.
NOTES: Incidence is the number of SSI applicants and new entrants aged 18–64 per 1,000 in population aged 18–64. The reference population is the "Selected Social Security Area Population" of the appropriate age group and includes the population of the United States and several additional areas. See the glossary for a complete definition.
All dollar amounts are in constant (price-adjusted) 2003 dollars.
Table equivalent for Chart 57. Maximum and minimum SGA amounts for the nonblind and the SGA level for the blind, 1970–2003 (nominal dollars)
Year Maximum SGA amount Minimum SGA amount SGA for the blind
1970 140 90 . . .
1971 140 90 . . .
1972 140 90 . . .
1973 140 90 . . .
1974 200 130 . . .
1975 200 130 . . .
1976 230 150 . . .
1977 240 160 . . .
1978 260 170 334
1979 280 180 375
1980 300 190 417
1981 300 190 459
1982 300 190 500
1983 300 190 550
1984 300 190 580
1985 300 190 610
1986 300 190 650
1987 300 190 680
1988 300 190 700
1989 300 190 740
1990 500 300 780
1991 500 300 810
1992 500 300 850
1993 500 300 880
1994 500 300 930
1995 500 300 940
1996 500 300 960
1997 500 300 1,000
1998 500 300 1,050
1999 700 300 1,110
2000 700 300 1,170
2001 740 300 1,240
2002 780 . . . 1,300
2003 800 . . . 1,330
SOURCE: Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2004, Table 2.A30.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 58. Application rates for disabled-worker benefits and SSI blind and disabled adult payments and real SGA level, 1970–2003
Year Disabled-worker
application rate
(number per thousand)
SSI blind and disabled
adult application rate
(number per thousand)
Real SGA level
(2003 dollars)
1970 11.67 . . . 648.29
1971 12.13 . . . 627.79
1972 12.18 . . . 607.11
1973 13.27 . . . 558.48
1974 15.97 9.12 710.21
1975 15.07 7.42 664.14
1976 14.16 6.47 728.33
1977 13.83 6.64 712.27
1978 12.64 6.53 707.80
1979 12.12 6.74 672.80
1980 12.58 7.10 640.67
1981 11.31 5.94 588.19
1982 9.76 5.26 566.50
1983 9.67 5.57 545.80
1984 9.68 5.74 525.07
1985 9.73 6.87 505.86
1986 10.02 7.13 500.36
1987 9.77 6.86 479.12
1988 8.80 6.40 458.84
1989 8.34 6.39 438.46
1990 8.89 7.07 688.71
1991 9.95 8.12 668.24
1992 10.86 8.93 649.40
1993 11.46 9.49 632.03
1994 11.44 9.06 615.56
1995 10.43 8.18 600.33
1996 9.82 7.53 581.02
1997 8.92 6.54 571.30
1998 8.68 6.51 562.23
1999 8.76 6.47 766.55
2000 9.57 6.80 741.44
2001 10.65 7.25 771.83
2002 11.78 8.08 794.66
2003 13.05 8.72 800.00
SOURCES: Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2004, Tables 2.A30, 4.C1, and 6.C7; 2004 Annual Report of the Supplemental Security Income Program, Table IV.A1; SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2003, Table 41.
NOTES: Application rates are per 1,000 disability-insured workers for disabled workers and per 1,000 in population aged 18–64 for SSI blind and disabled adults. The reference population for SSI adults is the "Selected Social Security Area Population" of the appropriate age group and includes the population of the United States and several additional areas. See the glossary for a complete definition.
All dollar amounts are in constant (price-adjusted) 2003 dollars.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 59. Rate of disabled-worker applications per 1,000 disability-insured workers and the unemployment rate, 1970–2003
Year Application rate (number per thousand) Unemployment rate (percent)
1970 11.67 4.90
1971 12.13 5.90
1972 12.18 5.60
1973 13.27 4.90
1974 15.97 5.60
1975 15.07 8.50
1976 14.16 7.70
1977 13.83 7.10
1978 12.64 6.10
1979 12.12 5.80
1980 12.58 7.10
1981 11.31 7.60
1982 9.76 9.70
1983 9.67 9.60
1984 9.68 7.50
1985 9.73 7.20
1986 10.02 7.00
1987 9.77 6.20
1988 8.80 5.50
1989 8.34 5.30
1990 8.89 5.60
1991 9.95 6.80
1992 10.86 7.50
1993 11.46 6.90
1994 11.44 6.10
1995 10.43 5.60
1996 9.82 5.40
1997 8.92 4.90
1998 8.68 4.50
1999 8.76 4.20
2000 9.57 4.00
2001 10.65 4.70
2002 11.78 5.80
2003 13.05 6.00
SOURCES: Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2004, Tables 2.A30, 4.C1, and 6.C7; Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rate, available at http://www.bls.gov/cps/prev_yrs.htm.
Table equivalent for Chart 60. Age-adjusted incidence rates for disabled workers, by sex, and the unemployment rate, 1975–2003
Year Men Women Unemployment rate
1975 7.72 6.18 8.50
1976 7.19 5.57 7.70
1977 7.41 5.57 7.10
1978 6.49 4.76 6.10
1979 5.71 4.16 5.80
1980 5.43 3.85 7.10
1981 4.80 3.28 7.60
1982 4.24 2.86 9.70
1983 5.39 3.59 9.60
1984 4.96 3.31 7.50
1985 4.93 3.35 7.20
1986 4.88 3.36 7.00
1987 4.76 3.30 6.20
1988 4.64 3.24 5.50
1989 4.69 3.37 5.30
1990 5.04 3.63 5.60
1991 5.62 4.12 6.80
1992 6.48 4.82 7.50
1993 6.26 4.75 6.90
1994 5.97 4.76 6.10
1995 5.84 4.94 5.60
1996 5.38 4.82 5.40
1997 4.83 4.53 4.90
1998 4.80 4.63 4.50
1999 4.74 4.61 4.20
2000 4.64 4.46 4.00
2001 5.01 4.84 4.70
2002 5.29 5.11 5.80
2003 5.36 5.14 6.00
SOURCES: Tim Zayatz, Social Security Disability Insurance Program Worker Experience, Actuarial Studies No. 114 (June 1999) and No. 118 (June 2005) (Washington, DC: Social Security Administration, Office of the Chief Actuary), Table 4; Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rate, available at http://www.bls.gov/cps/prev_yrs.htm.
NOTE: Incidence rates are the number of awards of disabled-worker benefits per 1,000 disability-insured workers.
Table equivalent for Chart 61. Rate of disabled-worker applications per 1,000 disability-insured workers, real SGA level, and the unemployment rate, 1970–2003
Year Application rate Real SGA level Unemployment rate
1970 11.67 6.48 4.90
1971 12.13 6.28 5.90
1972 12.18 6.07 5.60
1973 13.27 5.58 4.90
1974 15.97 7.10 5.60
1975 15.07 6.64 8.50
1976 14.16 7.28 7.70
1977 13.83 7.12 7.10
1978 12.64 7.08 6.10
1979 12.12 6.73 5.80
1980 12.58 6.41 7.10
1981 11.31 5.88 7.60
1982 9.76 5.66 9.70
1983 9.67 5.46 9.60
1984 9.68 5.25 7.50
1985 9.73 5.06 7.20
1986 10.02 5.00 7.00
1987 9.77 4.79 6.20
1988 8.80 4.59 5.50
1989 8.34 4.38 5.30
1990 8.89 6.89 5.60
1991 9.95 6.68 6.80
1992 10.86 6.49 7.50
1993 11.46 6.32 6.90
1994 11.44 6.16 6.10
1995 10.43 6.00 5.60
1996 9.82 5.81 5.40
1997 8.92 5.71 4.90
1998 8.68 5.62 4.50
1999 8.76 7.67 4.20
2000 9.57 7.41 4.00
2001 10.65 7.72 4.70
2002 11.78 7.95 5.80
2003 13.05 8.00 6.00
SOURCES: Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin, 2004, Tables 2.A30, 4.C1, and 6.C7; Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rate, available at http://www.bls.gov/cps/prev_yrs.htm.
NOTE: Unemployment rate in percent; real SGA level in hundreds of 2003 dollars.
Table equivalent for Chart 62. Rates of SSI applications and entry for blind and disabled adults per 1,000 in population aged 18–64 and the unemployment rate, 1980–2003
Year Unemployment rate Application rate New entrant rate
1980 7.10 7.17 2.06
1981 7.60 4.49 1.60
1982 9.70 4.98 1.39
1983 9.60 5.34 1.79
1984 7.50 5.56 2.18
1985 7.20 6.60 2.18
1986 7.00 7.03 2.53
1987 6.20 5.92 2.46
1988 5.50 5.75 2.26
1989 5.30 6.00 2.41
1990 5.60 6.71 2.82
1991 6.80 7.68 3.21
1992 7.50 8.53 4.01
1993 6.90 9.12 3.89
1994 6.10 8.86 3.52
1995 5.60 7.90 3.40
1996 5.40 7.30 3.11
1997 4.90 6.18 2.67
1998 4.50 6.32 2.81
1999 4.20 6.36 2.79
2000 4.00 6.42 2.69
2001 4.70 6.63 2.77
2002 5.80 7.20 2.90
2003 6.00 7.40 2.90
SOURCES: 2004 Annual Report of the Supplemental Security Income Program, Tables IV.A1, IV.B1, and IV.B2; Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rate, available at http://www.bls.gov/cps/prev_yrs.htm.
NOTE: The reference population is the "Selected Social Security Area Population" of the appropriate age group and includes the population of the United States and several additional areas. See the glossary for a complete definition.