Research and Program Descriptions About United Kingdom

International Update, February 2013
(released February 2013)
International Update, October 2012
(released October 2012)
"Fast-Track" Strategies in Long-Term Public Disability Programs Around the World
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 1 (released February 2012)

This article examines fast-track procedures in long-term public disability programs in the United States and several other countries. Such procedures share a common goal of accelerating applicants—generally for those with severe disabilities, blindness, or facing terminal illness—through the disability determination process.

International Update, December 2011
(released December 2011)
International Update, February 2011
(released February 2011)
International Update, November 2010
(released November 2010)
International Update, December 2009
(released December 2009)
International Update, January 2008
(released January 2008)
International Update, January 2007
(released January 2007)
International Update, December 2006
(released December 2006)
International Update, November 2006
(released November 2006)
International Update, February 2006
(released February 2006)
International Update, January 2006
(released January 2006)
International Update, December 2005
(released December 2005)
International Update, November 2005
(released November 2005)
Individual Accounts in Other Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)

To date, more than 30 countries have established some form of individual accounts in their retirement systems. This article identifies those countries, categorizes how the individual accounts fit into their retirement income systems, and identifies some basic characteristics of the accounts. Because this analysis of individual accounts is intended to inform the current United States debate involving Social Security, the discussion is limited to countries in which such accounts are part or all of a mandatory retirement income program.

International Update, August 2005
(released August 2005)
International Update, January 2005
(released January 2005)
International Update, December 2004
(released December 2004)
International Update, November 2004
(released November 2004)
International Update, January 2004
(released January 2004)
International Update, December 2003
(released December 2003)
Retirement Income Security in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 1 (released June 1999)

This article examines the U.K. retirement income security system from the American perspective. It addresses issues that most concern U.S. analysts: how the United Kingdom has kept its future public pension costs at a manageable level, the extent to which privatization of public pensions has contributed to low pensions costs, the popular appeal of individual pension accounts, and the impact of privatization on retirement income. These issues are best understood in the context of the U.K. pension program's particular institutional structure and policies, two of which—"contracting out" of public pensions, and strong reliance on means-tested benefits—have been largely rejected in the evolution of U.S. policy to date.

Particular use is made of recently available data on coverage rates for public and private pension programs over the total working population and administrative records on inactive personal pension accounts.

Retirement Income Security in the United Kingdom
ORES Working Paper No. 79 (released November 1998)

This study examines the United Kingdom's retirement income security system from the American perspective. It addresses issues that most concern U.S. analysts: how the United Kingdom has kept its future public pension costs at a manageable level, the extent to which privatization of public pensions has contributed to these savings, the popular appeal of individual pension accounts, and the impact of privatization on retirement income. These issues are best understood in the context of the U.K. pension program's particular institutional structure and policies, two of which—"contracting out" of public pensions and strong reliance on means-tested benefits—have been largely rejected in the evolution of U.S. policy to date.

Particular use is made of recently available data on coverage rates for public and private pension programs over the total working population and administrative records on inactive personal pension accounts.

Social Insurance Provisions for Children With Disabilities in Selected Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)

In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices.

In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information of in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

Recent European Trends in Disability and Related Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)

National Expenditures on Social Security and Health in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1985–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 2 (released February 1989)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)

International Social Security Agreements: The U.S. Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)

Health Care Expenditures: International Comparisons, 1970–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)

Long-Term Disability Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 9 (released September 1987)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1983–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 9 (released September 1986)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)

Social Security Reform Proposals in the United Kingdom: The White Paper
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 5 (released May 1986)

Proposals for Social Security Reform in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 8 (released August 1985)

Social Security Problems in Western European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 2 (released February 1984)

Purchasing Power of U.S. Social Security Benefits Abroad, 1970–82
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 9 (released September 1983)

Slowing Down Pension Indexing: The Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 6 (released June 1983)

Social Security Trends and Developments in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)

Consumer Price Indexes for the Elderly: British Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 1 (released January 1982)

Children's Allowances in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 10 (released October 1980)

Worldwide Trends in Social Security, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)

European Attitudes Toward Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 6 (released June 1980)

Health Care Expenditures in Nine Industrialized Countries, 1960–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)

Social Security: A Worldwide Issue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)

Mandating Private Pensions: Experience in Four European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 3 (released March 1979)

Mandatory Employment of the Handicapped
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 2 (released February 1979)

Flexible Retirement Features Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1975–77
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Earnings-Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits, 1965–75, Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 1 (released January 1978)

Alimony and Public Income Support: Fifteen Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)

Maintaining Value of Social Security Benefits During Inflation: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 11 (released November 1976)

Housewives and Pensions Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 9 (released September 1976)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)

Social Security Funding Practices in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 5 (released May 1976)

World Developments and Trends in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 4 (released April 1976)

Payroll Taxes Under Social Security Programs: Cross-National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)

Social Security Revision in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 11 (released November 1975)

Health Insurance for the Unemployed Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 9 (released September 1975)

Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Pensions for Workers Retiring at End of 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)

The Retirement Test: An International Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 7 (released July 1974)

Proposed Pension Reform in United Kingdom, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 8 (released August 1973)

The European Experience in Social Health Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)

Medical Care Expenditures in Seven Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)

New British Programs: Early Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 1 (released January 1973)

Children's Allowances: Their Size and Structure in Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)

Social Security Provisions for Young Adults in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)

Retirement Benefits for Very Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 4 (released April 1971)

International Health Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 12 (released December 1970)

Private Health Insurance in West Germany and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 10 (released October 1970)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1967–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)

Mental Retardation in Four Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)

British White Paper On Social Security Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)

Comparing the Financial Position of the Aged in Britain and the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)

Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 4 (released April 1968)

Income-Tax Treatment of Old-Age Pensions and Contributions Here and Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)

Relation of Social Security Expenditures to Gross National Product in 45 Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)

Social Security Programs of Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)

Medical Benefits for Old-Age Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)

A Quarter Century of Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)

Automatic Cost-of-Living Adjustment of Pensions in Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)

Medical Benefits For Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)

New Graduated Retirement Benefits in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 9 (released September 1959)

European Multilateral Social Security Treaties
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 2 (released February 1959)

Foreign Social Security Programs in 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1955 to 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1935–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)

Cost of the British Social Services, 1938–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 2 (released February 1954)

Income-Maintenance Programs for the Aged, United States and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 9 (released September 1952)

Social Welfare Expenditures, United States and Great Britain, 1949–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 7 (released July 1952)

British National Health Services Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)

Social Security Agreements in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 4 (released April 1950)

World Developments in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)

Coverage of the Self-Employed Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)

Dependents in Social Security Systems of Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)

Some Recent Developments in Social Service in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 6 (released June 1947)

The New British System of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 2 (released February 1947)

Foreign Experience in Social Insurance Contributions for Agricultural and Domestic Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2 (released February 1945)

A Social Security Plan for Great Britain: The Government's White Paper
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 11 (released November 1944)

The British White Paper on Employment Policy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 9 (released September 1944)

A National Health Service: Report of the Council of the British Medical Association
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 8 (released August 1944)

A National Health Service: The British White Paper
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 3 (released March 1944)

Some Experiments With Contribution Rate Differentials in British Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 12 (released December 1943)

The Future of Medicine in Great Britain: A Review fo the Medical Planning Research Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)

Social Security for Great Britain--A Review of the Beveridge Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 1 (released January 1943)

British Proposals for the Future of Social Insurance and Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 12 (released December 1942)

Labor Scarcity and Labor-Market Policy Under an Armament Program in Germany and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 9 (released September 1942)

Employment Security in Great Britain During the First 14 Months of the War
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 2 (released February 1941)

Medical Services Under Health Insurance Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 12 (released December 1940)

Extension of the Scope of National Assistance Programs in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 6 (released June 1940)

The Roles of Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Assistance in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 3 (released March 1940)

British Contributory Pensions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)

Seasonal Workers and Unemployment Insurance in Great Britain, Germany, and Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 12 (released December 1938)

Unemployment and Health Insurance in Great Britain, 1911-37
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 8 (released August 1938)

Deciding Claims to Unemployment Benefits; an Outline of the British System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 7 (released July 1938)

Old-Age Insurance for Agricultural Workers in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)